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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether blood lactate values determined in dogs with 4 commercially available point-of-care meters were in agreement with values determined with a critical care laboratory blood analyzer.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—50 dogs evaluated for emergency treatment.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected at initial evaluation and processed on 4 point-of-care meters and on a critical care laboratory blood analyzer.

Results—All 4 point-of-care lactate meters generated measurements that were in agreement with the hospital's critical care analyzer. Values for agreement (bias) between the 4 point-of-care meters and the critical care analyzer were −0.652 (limits of agreement [LA], −1.958 to 0.654]), −0.670 (LA, −2.110 to 0.769), −0.096 (LA, −2.071 to 1.879), and −0.498 (LA, −2.616 to 1.620), respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite its prognostic and therapeutic relevance, blood lactate measurement in dogs has been hampered by the inability to perform the test in a timely fashion. Results of the present study indicated that several handheld point-of-care lactate meters provided results that were in agreement with a laboratory critical care blood analyzer.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of application of an alcohol-based antiseptic (80% ethyl alcohol) hand rub (ABAHR) with that of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (CGS2) for immediate reduction of the bacterial population on the skin of dogs.

ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs with no evidence of skin disease.

PROCEDURES On each dog, 2 areas of hair on the ventral aspect of the abdomen were clipped with a No. 40 blade and cleared of debris. A direct contact plate holding tryptic soy agar with polysorbate 80 and lecithin was gently pressed (for 2 seconds) on each skin site (preapplication sample). The CGS2 and ABAHR were each aseptically applied to 1 skin site on each dog. A direct contact plate was subsequently applied to each site in a similar manner (postapplication sample). All plates were cultured, and bacterial isolates were identified and quantified by the number of CFUs per plate.

RESULTS Application of the CGS2 and ABAHR significantly decreased skin bacterial colony counts, compared with findings for preapplication samples. The number of CFUs per plate or postapplication percentage reduction in CFUs per plate did not differ between treatments. There were no adverse skin reactions associated with either application.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that applications of ABAHR and CGS2 were equally effective at immediately reducing the bacterial population on the skin of dogs, and there was no significant difference in percentage reduction in colony counts between the 2 applications.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether there are increased concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitaminn D3 in red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) after exposure to UV radiation.

Animals—12 yearling turtles recently removed from aestivation.

Procedures—Turtles were randomly allocated to 2 groups (6 turtles/group). An initial blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations. Turtles of 1 group were then provided no supplemental lighting, whereas turtles of the other group were exposed to full-spectrum coil bulbs at a distance of 22.86 cm. The UV-A and UV-B radiation generated by the supplemental lighting was measured by use of a radiometer-photometer at weekly intervals. Measurements were collected 2.54 and 22.86 cm from the bulb surface. The study was continued for a 4-week period. At the end of the study, a second blood sample was collected from all turtles for measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.

Results—Mean ± SD 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations differed significantly between turtles provided supplemental UV radiation (71.7 ± 46.9 nmol/L) and those not provided UV radiation (31.4 ± 13.2 nmol/L).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Appropriate husbandry recommendations for raising and maintaining red-eared slider turtles should include use of sunlight that is unobstructed by UV-B filtering material or provision of an artificial source of UV-B radiation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of 24 hours of refrigeration on urine samples collected from dogs with signs of urinary tract infection (UTI).

DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 104 dogs with signs consistent with UTI that had a urine sample collected via cystocentesis as part of their diagnostic workup.

PROCEDURES A 1-mL aliquot of each urine sample was refrigerated at 5°C for 24 hours in a plain glass tube, then processed for quantitative bacterial culture (QBC). A 0.5-mL aliquot was added to 3 mL of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and refrigerated at 5°C for 24 hours, then processed for QBC. The remaining portion was immediately processed for QBC, with results reported as numbers of bacterial colony–forming units (CFUs). Sensitivity of the QBC for detection of bacteria (and therefore UTI) was determined for sample refrigeration in the 2 conditions, compared with immediate processing (reference standard).

RESULTS Bacterial growth was identified in 35.6% (n = 37), 33.7% (35), and 31.7% (33) of the immediately processed, refrigerated, and refrigerated-in-TSB urine samples, respectively. Sample refrigeration without TSB resulted in no significant difference in CFU counts relative to immediate processing; however, the sensitivity of this method was 95% (35/37). Sample refrigeration with TSB resulted in significantly lower CFU counts, and sensitivity was only 89% (33/37).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Canine urine samples collected for bacterial culture should be immediately submitted for testing. Although CFU counts for refrigerated and immediately processed samples were statistically similar in this study, sample refrigeration in enrichment broth resulted in imperfect sensitivity for UTI detection and is not recommended.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units yield measurements that are in good agreement with directly measured blood pressures in cats.

Design—Evaluation study.

Animals—21 cats undergoing routine spaying or neutering.

Procedures—A 24-gauge catheter was inserted in a dorsal pedal artery, and systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were directly measured with a validated pressure measurement system. Values were compared with indirect blood pressure measurements obtained with 3 veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units.

Results—There was poor agreement between indirectly and directly measured blood pressures. For unit 1, bias between indirectly and directly measured values was −14.9 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement [LOA], −52.2 to 22.4 mm Hg), 4.4 mm Hg (95% LOA, −26.0 to 34.8 mm Hg), and −1.3 mm Hg (95% LOA, −26.7 to 24.1 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively. For unit 2, bias was −10.3 mm Hg (95% LOA, −52.9 to 32.2 mm Hg), 13.0 mm Hg (95% LOA, −32.1 to 58.0 mm Hg), and 9.1 mm Hg (95% LOA, −32.9 to 51.2 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively. For unit 3, bias was −13.4 mm Hg (95% LOA, −51.8 to 25.1 mm Hg), 8.0 mm Hg (95% LOA, −25.5 to 41.6 mm Hg), and −3.6 mm Hg (95% LOA, −31.6 to 24.5 mm Hg) for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that none of the 3 veterinary-specific oscillometric blood pressure units could be recommended for indirect measurement of blood pressure in cats.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of UVB radiation produced by artificial lights on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi).

Animals—9 juvenile domestic rabbits.

Procedures—After an acclimation period, rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and an initial blood sample was collected for determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Rabbits were randomly assigned to receive 12-hour exposure to UVB radiation produced by 2 compact fluorescent lights daily (n = 5) or no UVB supplementation (4) commencing on day 1. The UVB radiation emitted into the cage was measured at 9 points approximately 34 cm from the surface of the UVB light sources (representing the position of the rabbits in the cage) after 10 hours of exposure on days 1, 8, and 14. On day 14, another blood sample was collected from anesthetized rabbits for determination of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration.

Results—The UVB radiation level was 8.3 to 58.1 μW/cm2 for the exposed rabbits and consistently < 0.001 μW/cm2 for the control rabbits. Mean ± SD serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the rabbits that were or were not provided supplemental UVB radiation for 14 days differed significantly (66.4 ± 14.3 nmol/L and 31.7 ± 9.9 nmol/L, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to UVB radiation produced by artificial light significantly increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in juvenile rabbits. Because vitamin D is an essential hormone in vertebrates, these findings suggested that the provision of supplemental UVB radiation to captive rabbits may be important.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To critically evaluate plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

Design—Prospective induced-disease model and prospective cross-sectional study.

Sample—Plasma samples from 12 purpose-bred red-eared sliders and 153 farm-raised red-eared sliders.

Procedures—A modification of the Jacobsson method was developed to measure fibrinogen concentration in platelet-poor plasma from red-eared sliders. Purpose-bred turtles had been inoculated with a ranavirus (n = 4) or sterile PBS solution (8) as part of another study. Farm-raised red-eared sliders were categorized as healthy (n = 138) or overtly ill (15) on the basis of physical examination findings at the time of blood sample collection. Samples from 124 of the 138 healthy red-eared sliders were used to establish a fibrinogen concentration reference interval as measured by the modified Jacobsson method. Fibrinogen concentrations in ranavirus-infected and physically ill turtles were compared with those of healthy turtles to determine whether fibrinogen concentration would be a useful diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders.

Results—The modified Jacobsson method was reliably used to measure fibrinogen concentration. The fibrinogen concentration reference interval from healthy reproductively active female red-eared sliders was right skewed. Fibrinogen concentration did not differ significantly between healthy red-eared sliders and ranavirus-infected or overtly ill red-eared sliders.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A reference interval for red-eared slider plasma fibrinogen concentration was established and partitioned by sex to account for considerable right skewing observed for females. Fibrinogen concentration was not a useful indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders with ranavirus infection or other overt illnesses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure plasma and tissue activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, and γ-glutamyltransferase in 2 snake species.

ANIMALS

6 banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata) and 6 diamondback water snakes (Nerodia rhombifer).

PROCEDURES

Blood was collected via the ventral tail vein to measure plasma enzyme activities. Animals were then euthanized, and samples of 9 tissues were collected from each snake: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, testicle, pancreas, and gallbladder. Tissues were frozen for 30 days, then homogenized and processed. Supernatants were collected and analyzed within 24 hours of processing. A linear mixed model was used to determine differences in enzyme activity between tissues and species and assess interactions between tissues and species.

RESULTS

Activities of all enzymes were found to differ significantly among tissues. There were also significant differences between species for all enzyme activities, except AST activity. The kidney had the highest alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly highest in liver and kidney tissues than in other tissue. Creatine kinase activity was highest in skeletal muscle, followed by cardiac muscle and kidney. AST activity was present in all tissues evaluated, but was highest in liver, kidney, and cardiac muscle in both species.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results reinforced the importance of characterizing the origin of tissue enzymes in reptiles to improve our understanding of biochemistry results and highlighted the differences that can exist in tissue enzyme activities between closely related species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate histologic reactions to 8 suture materials and cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive (CTA) in the musculature and skin of ball pythons.

Animals—30 hatchling ball pythons.

Procedures—In each snake, ten 1-cm skin incisions were made (day 0). At 8 sites, a suture of 1 of 8 materials was placed in the epaxial musculature, and the incision was closed with the same material. One incision was closed by use of CTA. No suture material was placed in the tenth incision, which was allowed to heal by second intention (negative control). Snakes (n = 5/group) were euthanized for harvest of treatment-site tissues at days 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. Skin and muscle sections were examined microscopically and assigned a subjective score (0 to 4) for each of the following: overall severity of inflammation, fibrosis, number of macrophages, number of granulocytes, number of perivascular lymphocytes, and degree of suture fragmentation.

Results—Subjective score analysis revealed that CTA did not cause a significant inflammatory response, compared with the negative control. All suture materials caused significantly more inflammation over all time points; for all suture materials, inflammatory response scores were significantly higher than values for the negative control 90 days after implantation. No sutures were completely absorbed by the end of the study period, and several sutures appeared to be in the process of extrusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In snakes, CTA can be used to close small superficial incisions or lacerations with minimal inflammatory response, and sutures may undergo extrusion from tissues prior to complete absorption.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research