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  • Author or Editor: Mark A. Levy x
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Abstract

Objective—To assess the transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from experimentally infected white-tailed deer fawns to colostrum-deprived calves by use of a BVDV strain isolated from hunter-harvested white-tailed deer.

Animals—5 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns and 6 colostrum-deprived calves.

Procedures—Fawns were inoculated intranasally with a noncytopathic BVDV-1a isolate (2 mL containing 106.7 TCID50/mL), and 2 days after inoculation, animals were commingled until the end of the study. Blood and serum samples were obtained on days −6, 0, 7, 14, and 21 after inoculation for reverse transcriptase PCR assay, virus neutralization, and BVDV-specific antibody ELISA. Nasal, oral, and rectal swab specimens were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 17, and 21 for reverse transcriptase PCR testing. By 21 days after inoculation, all animals were euthanized and necropsied and tissues were collected for histologic evaluation, immunohistochemical analysis, and virus isolation.

Results—All fawns became infected and shed the virus for up to 18 days as determined on the basis of reverse transcriptase PCR testing and virus isolation results. Evidence of BVDV infection as a result of cohabitation with acutely infected fawns was detected in 4 of the 6 calves by means of reverse transcriptase PCR testing and virus isolation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of these findings, BVDV transmission from acutely infected fawns to colostrum-deprived calves appeared possible.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the potential synergy between bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and 3-methylindole (3MI) in inducing respiratory disease in cattle.

Animals

20 mixed-breed beef calves.

Procedure

A 2 × 2 factorial design was used, with random assignment to the following 4 treatment groups: unchallenged control, BRSV challenge exposure (5 × 104 TCID50 by aerosolization and 5.5 × 105 TCID50 by intratracheal inoculation), 3MI challenge exposure (0.1 g/kg of body weight, PO), and combined BRSV-3MI challenge exposure. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Serum 3MI concentrations, WBC counts, PCV, total plasma protein, and fibrinogen concentrations were determined throughout the experiment. Surviving cattle were euthanatized 7 days after challenge exposure. Pulmonary lesions were evaluated at postmortem examination.

Results

Clinical respiratory disease was more acute and severe in cattle in the BRSV-3MI challenge-exposure group than in cattle in the other groups. All 5 cattle in this group and 3 of 5 cattle treated with 3MI alone died or were euthanatized prior to termination of the experiment. Mean lung displacement volume was greatest in the BRSV-3MI challenge-exposure group. Gross and histologic examination revealed that pulmonary lesions were also most severe for cattle in this group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Feedlot cattle are commonly infected with BRSV, and 3MI is produced by microflora in the rumen of all cattle. Our results suggest that there is a synergy between BRSV and 3MI. Thus, controlling combined exposure may be important in preventing respiratory disease in feedlot cattle. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:563–570)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

As efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned dogs and cats have increased, greater attention has been focused on spay-neuter programs throughout the United States. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of programs have been developed to increase delivery of spay-neuter services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, feral cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to ensure a consistent level of care, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. The guidelines consist of recommendations for preoperative care (eg, patient transport and housing, patient selection, client communication, record keeping, and medical considerations), anesthetic management (eg, equipment, monitoring, perioperative considerations, anesthetic protocols, and emergency preparedness), surgical care (eg, operating-area environment; surgical-pack preparation; patient preparation; surgeon preparation; surgical procedures for pediatric, juvenile, and adult patients; and identification of neutered animals), and postoperative care (eg, analgesia, recovery, and release). These guidelines are based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, microbiology, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

As community efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned cats and dogs have increased, many veterinarians have increasingly focused their clinical efforts on the provision of spay-neuter services. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of spay-neuter programs have been developed to increase delivery of services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, community cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to promote consistent, high-quality care across the broad range of these programs, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. These guidelines consist of recommendations for general patient care and clinical procedures, preoperative care, anesthetic management, surgical procedures, postoperative care, and operations management. They were based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, infection control, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs regardless of location, facility, or type of program. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians envisions that these guidelines will be used by the profession to maintain consistent veterinary medical care in all settings where spay-neuter services are provided and to promote these services as a means of reducing sheltering and euthanasia of cats and dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association