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  • Author or Editor: Mark A. Holmes x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine concentrations of IgA and IgG subclasses in serum, colostrum, milk, and nasal wash samples of adult horses and foals.

Animals—Seven 2-year-old Welsh ponies, 27 adult mixed-breed horses, and 5 Quarter Horse mares and their foals.

Procedure—Serum was obtained from ponies and adult horses. Colostrum and milk were obtained from mares and serum and nasal wash samples from their foals immediately after parturition and on days 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, and 63. Nasal wash samples were also obtained from 23 adult horses. Concentrations of immunoglobulins were determined by use of inhibition ELISA. To determine transfer of maternal isotypes to foals, concentrations in colostrum and milk were compared with those in foal serum. Serum half-lives of isotypes in foals were also determined.

Results—IgGb was the most abundant isotype in serum and colostrum from adult horses, whereas IgA was the predominant isotype in milk. The major isotype in nasal secretions of adult horses and foals ≥ 28 days old was IgA, but IgGa and IgGb were the major isotypes in nasal secretions of foals ≤ 14 days old. Serum half lives of IgGa, IgGb, IgG(T), and IgA in foals were 17.6, 32, 21, and 3.4 days, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The early immunoglobulin repertoire of neonatal foals comprised IgGa, IgG(T), and IgA; endogenous synthesis of IgGb could not be detected until 63 days after birth. The restricted repertoire of immunoglobulins in foals may influence humoral immune responses to vaccination. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1099–1105)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe the outcome of full-thickness skin grafts used to close skin defects involving the distal aspects of the limbs in cats and dogs and identify factors associated with outcome.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—20 cats and 32 dogs with a skin defect involving the distal aspect of a limb that received 58 full-thickness skin grafts between 2005 and 2012.

Procedures—Data regarding patient signalment, location and cause of the skin defect, surgical and anesthetic duration, and postoperative bandaging protocol were obtained from the medical records. Graft outcome was assessed by interpreting descriptions in the records; skin viability over ≥ 75% of the graft area between 7 and 14 days after surgery was considered a successful outcome.

Results—For 4 of the 58 grafts, graft outcome could not be determined from the medical record. For the remaining grafts, success rate was significantly higher for grafts placed in cats (17/22 [77%]) than in dogs (12/32 [38%]). The overall complication rate was 50%; complications included skin graft failure, donor site dehiscence, and bandage-induced sloughing of skin adjacent to the graft recipient site. In addition to species, anatomic location of the skin defect was identified as a prognostic indicator of graft outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Full-thickness skin grafting had a higher success rate in cats than in dogs. Skin grafts applied to the antebrachium, compared with other locations on the distal aspects of the limbs, were associated with a poorer prognosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association