An 11-year-old 33.6-kg (73.9-lb) neutered male chocolate Labrador Retriever was referred to a veterinary teaching hospital for evaluation of a newly diagnosed paroxysmal arrhythmia, lethargy of 3 days' duration, and a single episode of emesis. Four days prior to the referral evaluation, the dog developed gastric dilatation volvulus and consequently underwent exploratory laparotomy and gastropexy performed at another emergency hospital. Two days after discharge from that hospital, inappetence and lethargy prompted readmission. Electrocardiography reportedly revealed paroxysms of a narrow-complex tachycardia (NCT) with instantaneous rates of 280 to 300 beats/min as well as wide-complex premature beats (no ECG tracings available). Lidocaine
Objective—To determine whether a high dosage of pimobendan, when administered concurrently with moderate-dosage furosemide to healthy dogs, would activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) more than furosemide alone.
Animals—12 healthy dogs.
Procedures—6 dogs received furosemide (2.0 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) only, as an RAAS activator, for 10 days. The other 6 dogs received furosemide (2.0 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and pimobendan (0.6 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 10 days. The effect of these drugs on the RAAS was determined by measurement of the aldosterone-to-creatinine ratio (A:C) in urine collected in the morning and evening of study days −2, −1, 1, 5, and 10.
Results—Although there was an increase in the urine A:C during the study period in both groups, it was significant only for dogs that received both drugs. The urine A:C only differed significantly between groups on day 1, at which time A:C was greater in the group that received both drugs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High-dosage pimobendan administration neither substantially suppressed nor potentiated the RAAS when administered with furosemide in healthy dogs.
An 11-month-old 25.2-kg castrated male American Pit Bull Terrier was referred to the ophthalmology service of the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH) for a prolapsed gland of the nictitating membrane (“cherry eye”) in the right eye. The gland had been prolapsed for at least 7 months at the time of presentation and had been evaluated by the referring veterinarian (rDVM). Surgical correction had been attempted; however, during the anesthetic event, the rDVM noticed hypoxemia that was corroborated by results for oxygen saturation of hemoglobin measured with pulse oximetry (Spo2) < 90% and that did
OBJECTIVE To determine whether high doses of enalapril and benazepril would be more effective than standard doses of these drugs in suppressing the furosemide-activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).
ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES 2 experiments were conducted; each lasted 10 days, separated by a 2-week washout period. In experiment 1, all dogs received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and enalapril (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 8 days (days 0 through 7). In experiment 2, dogs received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and benazepril (1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 8 days. Effects on the RAAS were determined by assessing serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity on days −1, 3, and 7; serum aldosterone concentration on days −2, −1, 1, 3, and 7; and the urinary aldosterone-creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) in urine collected in the morning and evening of days −2, −1, 1, 3, and 7.
RESULTS High doses of enalapril and benazepril caused significant reductions in serum ACE activity on all days but were not more effective than standard doses used in other studies. Mean UAldo:C remained significantly higher on days 2 through 7, compared with baseline values. Serum aldosterone concentration also increased after drug administration, which mirrored changes in the UAldo:C.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, administration of high doses of enalapril and benazepril significantly inhibited ACE activity, yet did not prevent increases in mean urine and serum aldosterone concentrations resulting from furosemide activation of RAAS. This suggested that aldosterone breakthrough from ACE inhibition was a dose-independent effect of ACE inhibitors.
A 26-year-old 290-g female Timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus timneh) was presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for CT as part of radiation planning for treatment of a right periocular mass, suspected to be a squamous cell carcinoma.
On initial evaluation, the bird was bright, alert, and responsive and had a body condition score of 2/9. On physical examination, there was severe periocular swelling around the right eye causing the palpebral fissure to be held shut. Thoracic auscultation was performed with a neonatal stethoscope with the diaphragm placed directly over the keel of the
Case Description—2 castrated male Labrador Retrievers (dogs 1 and 2) were evaluated 3 to 4 years after placement of a permanent pacemaker. Dog 1 was evaluated because of a large volume of chylous pleural effusion. Dog 2 was admitted for elective replacement of a pacemaker.
Clinical Findings—Dog 1 had mild facial swelling and a rapidly recurring pleural effusion. Previously detected third-degree atrioventricular block had resolved. Cranial vena cava (CVC) syndrome secondary to pacemaker-induced thrombosis and stricture of the CVC was diagnosed on the basis of results of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and venous angiography. Dog 2 had persistent third-degree atrioventricular block. Intraluminal caval stricture and thrombosis were diagnosed at the time of pacemaker replacement. Radiographic evidence of pleural effusion consistent with CVC syndrome also was detected at that time.
Treatment and Outcome—Dog 1 improved after treatment with unfractionated heparin and a local infusion of recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator. Balloon venoplasty was performed subsequently to relieve the persistent caval stricture. In dog 2, balloon dilatation of the caval stricture was necessary to allow for placement of a new pacing lead. Long-term anticoagulant treatment was initiated in both dogs. Long-term (> 6 months) resolution of clinical signs was achieved in both dogs.
Clinical Relevance—Thrombosis and stricture of the CVC are possible complications of a permanent pacemaker in dogs. Findings suggested that balloon venoplasty and anticoagulation administration with or without thrombolytic treatment can be effective in the treatment of dogs with pacemaker-induced CVC syndrome.
Objective—To assess survival time and adverse events related to the administration of pimobendan to cats with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM).
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—27 cats receiving treatment with pimobendan and 27 cats receiving treatment without pimobendan.
Procedures—Medical records between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed. All cats with HCM or HOCM treated with a regimen that included pimobendan (case cats) were identified. Control cats (cats with CHF treated during the same period with a regimen that did not include pimobendan) were selected by matching to case cats on the basis of age, sex, body weight, type of cardiomyopathy, and manifestation of CHF. Data collected included signalment, physical examination findings, echocardiographic data, serum biochemical values, and survival time from initial diagnosis of CHF. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed and compared by means of a log rank test.
Results—Cats receiving pimobendan had a significant benefit in survival time. Median survival time of case cats receiving pimobendan was 626 days, whereas median survival time for control cats not receiving pimobendan was 103 days. No significant differences were detected for any other variable.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The addition of pimobendan to traditional treatment for CHF may provide a substantial clinical benefit in survival time for HCM-affected cats with CHF and possibly HOCM-affected cats with CHF.