To assess the feasibility of ultrasonography of the tympanic bullae (TB) in live, nonsedated rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
40 healthy rabbits undergoing TB ultrasonography without sedation between September 2021 and May 2022.
For each rabbit, fur was clipped over an area (3 X 3 cm) at the level of the angular process of each mandible, then 3 ultrasonographic planes of each TB were imaged via ventral approach, with measurement of the time taken to complete the examination. Three items were assessed for each plane: TB depth, wall integrity, and contents (present or absent). Results were compared for rabbits grouped as standard-sized breed type versus dwarf-sized breed type.
The examination could be carried out successfully in 36 of 40 (90%) of rabbits with clipping. The restraint and examination were relatively well tolerated by the animals, except for the transverse sections. Obtaining oblique and longitudinal sections, carried out on 33 of 40 (83%) rabbits in our study, allowed for evaluation of the TB. The examination was feasible with all rabbit sizes. The depth of the TB was found to be linked to the size of the rabbit and especially to the size of its jaw. Visualization of the distal bulla wall was observed in 2 of the 40 (5%) subjects, consistent with abnormal fluid contents or bulla osteitis.
Ultrasonography of the TB was easy to learn and rapid to perform, with a mean examination time of < 10 minutes (mean of 8.71 minutes) without any sedation.
Objective—To investigate renal function in clinically normal dogs when awake and during anesthesia with medetomidine; xylazine, ketamine, and halothane (XKH) combination; or propofol.
Animals—10 adult female Beagles.
Procedures—At intervals of 15 days, dogs were administered medetomidine (0.05 mg/kg, IV); XKH combination (xylazine [1 mg/kg, IV], ketamine [5 mg/kg, IV], and halothane [1% end-tidal concentration]); or propofol (6 mg/kg, IV) to induce anesthesia or no treatment. Glomerular filtration rate was assessed on the basis of renal uptake (RU; determined via renal scintigraphy) and plasma clearance (CL) of technetium 99m-labeled diethylenetriamine peentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA).
Results—In awake dogs, mean ± SEM RU was 9.7 ± 0.4% and CL was 3.86 ± 0.23 mL/min/ kg. Renal uptake and CL of 99mTc-DTPA were not significantly modified by administration of XKH (RU, 11.4 ± 0.9%; CL, 4.6 ± 0.32 mL/min/kg) or propofol (RU, 9.7 ± 0.3%; CL, 3.78 ± 0.37 mL/min/kg). Half-life elimination time of plasma 99mTc-DTPA decreased significantly in XKH-anesthetized dogs, compared with the value in awake dogs (14.4 minutes and 28.9 minutes, respectively). However, glomerular filtration rate was significantly decreased by administration of medetomidine (RU, 3.9 ± 0.1%), and the time to maximum kidney activity was significantly increased (867 ± 56 seconds vs 181 ± 11 seconds without anesthesia).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that anesthesia with propofol or an XKH combination did not alter renal function in healthy Beagles, but anesthesia with medetomidine decreased early RU of 99mTc-DTPA.