Case Description—A 6-month-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of acute lethargy.
Clinical Findings—Severe nonregenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia were identified. Cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate revealed selective erythroid and mega-karyocytic aplasia and a high number of apparently normal small lymphocytes. Infectious agents implicated in feline hematologic disorders were excluded on the basis of serologic tests or PCR amplification, including FeLV, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, and Candidatus Myco-plasma turicensis.
Treatment and Outcome—A 10-day course of prednisolone administration did not improve the hematologic disorder. Administration of human polyclonal immunoglobulins preceded increased reticulocyte count by 3 days. A second bone marrow examination confirmed restoration of erythroblasts and megakaryocytes. After 1 relapse, the disease was successfully controlled with prednisolone for > 3 years.
Clinical Relevance—Immune-mediated bone marrow aplasia is rare in cats and usually affects only erythrocyte progenitors. Concomitant involvement of erythroid and megakaryocytic cell lines can be successfully treated via immunosuppressive therapy. Human immunoglobulins seem to be well tolerated in cats; however, proof of a beneficial effect requires further study.