Objective—To determine the respective associations between ureteral obstruction and renomegaly, urine specific gravity (USG), and serum creatinine concentration and to assess the reliability of abdominal palpation for detection of renomegaly in cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—89 client-owned cats with (n = 29) or without ureteral obstruction and with (30) or without (30) kidney disease.
Procedures—Medical records of cats that underwent abdominal ultrasonography at a veterinary teaching hospital from January 2006 through April 2013 were reviewed. Cats were categorized as having ureteral obstruction (obstructed group) or no ureteral obstruction with (KD group) or without kidney disease (NKD group). Renomegaly and renal asymmetry were defined on the basis of mean renal length for NKD cats. Prevalence of renomegaly and renal asymmetry, mean USG and serum creatinine concentration, and abdominal palpation and ultrasonographic findings were compared among the groups.
Results—Renomegaly was identified in 2 obstructed cats and 1 KD cat and was not associated with ureteral obstruction. Renal asymmetry was detected in 18 obstructed cats and 11 KD cats. For obstructed and KD cats, the mean USG was significantly lower and the mean serum creatinine concentration was significantly greater than those for NKD cats. Twenty-eight of 29 cats with ureteral obstruction had hypercreatininemia. Abdominal palpation was not a reliable method for detection of renomegaly.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated renomegaly was not associated with ureteral obstruction in cats, and abdominal palpation was an unreliable method for detection of renomegaly. The most consistent abnormal finding for cats with ureteral obstruction was hypercreatininemia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;247:518–524)
Case Description—A gallbladder mucocele was diagnosed in 2 dogs. In both dogs, the mucocele resolved with medical treatment but without the need for surgical intervention.
Clinical Findings—A 12-year-old spayed female Miniature Schnauzer had a history of signs of gastrointestinal tract disease and high serum liver enzyme activities. Gallbladder mucocele and hypothyroidism were diagnosed. A 6-year-old neutered mixed-breed dog had chronic intermittent diarrhea and recurrent otitis; gallbladder mucocele and hypothyroidism were diagnosed.
Treatment and Outcome—The first dog was treated with S-adenosyl-methionine, omega-3 fatty acids, famotidine, ursodiol, and levothyroxine. Substantial improvement in the gastrointestinal tract condition and complete resolution of the gallbladder mucocele within 3 months were evident, but the dog was not available for further follow-up monitoring. The second dog was treated with fenbendazole, ursodiol, and levothyroxine and fed a hypoallergenic diet. One month after evaluation, abdominal ultrasonography revealed that the gallbladder mucocele was resolving, and treatment was continued. Ultrasonographic evaluation 2 and 4 months later revealed complete resolution of the mucocele.
Clinical Relevance—Review of the clinical course of 2 dogs in which there was nonsurgical resolution of gallbladder mucocele revealed that surgery is not necessary in all dogs with gallbladder mucocele. Hypothyroidism may have resulted in delayed gallbladder emptying, and its role in the pathogenesis of gallbladder mucocele merits investigation. Despite this information, until further prospective trials with a control group and standardized treatments and follow-up monitoring can be performed, the authors recommend surgical intervention for treatment of dogs with gallbladder mucocele.
Objective—To determine tracheal mucociliary clearance
rate (TMCCR) by use of a standard protocol in
healthy anesthetized cats and to determine the effect
of theophylline on TMCCR in healthy anesthetized
Animals—6 healthy cats.
Procedure—Cats were anesthetized with propofol,
and a droplet of the radiopharmaceutical technetium
Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin was placed endoscopically
at the carina. Dynamic acquisition scintigraphic
imaging was performed, using the larynx as
the end point. The TMCCR was determined by measuring
the distance the droplet traveled by frame rate.
Each cat was imaged 6 times as follows: 3 times following
placebo administration and 3 times following
the administration of sustained release theophylline
(25 mg/kg, PO). Serum theophylline concentrations
were assessed during imaging to ensure therapeutic
Results—The TMCCR in healthy adult cats anesthetized
with propofol was 22.2 ± 2.8 mm/min.
Tracheal mucociliary clearance rate in cats receiving
theophylline was 21.8 ± 3.5 mm/min. Theophylline
administration did not significantly alter TMCCR.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Theophylline
has been shown to increase TMCCR in humans and
dogs. In our study, we determined TMCCR in healthy
anesthetized cats and found that it was not accelerated
by the administration of theophylline. (Am J Vet