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  • Author or Editor: Marie E. Pinkerton x
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To identify environmental and other variables associated with a diagnosis of granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME) in dogs.


Case-control study.


31 dogs that received a histologic diagnosis of GME (case dogs) from January 2003 to January 2014 and 91 age- and breed-matched dogs.


Data were obtained from each dog's medical records regarding home address, signalment, body weight, body condition score (BCS), vaccination history, and date of diagnosis (case dogs) or visit (control dogs). Home address data were used to determine the human population density in each dog's geographic region. Seasonal distributions of GME diagnoses in the case group were evaluated for differences. Case and control dogs were compared with respect to the remaining variables.


For case dogs, no significant difference was identified among seasons in the distribution of GME diagnoses; however, such diagnoses were more common in the spring than in other seasons. No significant differences were identified between case and control dogs in age, body weight, BCS, human population density, season of diagnosis or visit, or time of last vaccination. Although females appeared more likely than males to have a GME diagnosis, this association was not significant and did not change when BCS, time since last vaccination, or human population density was considered.


None of the evaluated factors, including investigated environmental triggers, were associated with a GME diagnosis in the dogs of this study. Additional research is warranted involving dogs from a broader geographic area.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 7-year-old and a 10-year-old Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus; parrots 1 and 2, respectively) were evaluated because of neurologic deficits.

Clinical Findings—Parrot 1 had an 8- to 9-month history of lethargy and anorexia, with a recent history of a suspected seizure. Parrot 2 had a 6-month history of decreased activity and vocalizing, with an extended history of excessive water intake; a water deprivation test ruled out diabetes insipidus, and psychogenic polydipsia was suspected. Both birds had ophthalmologic asymmetry, with anisocoria detected in parrot 1 and unilateral blindness in parrot 2. Metal gastrointestinal foreign bodies were observed on whole-body radiographs of both birds, but blood lead concentrations were below the range indicated for lead toxicosis. Findings on CT of the head were consistent with hydrocephalus in both cases.

Treatment and Outcome—Parrot 1 received supportive care and died 3 months after the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. Parrot 2 was treated with omeprazole and prednisolone for 10 days without any improvement in neurologic deficits; euthanasia was elected, and hydrocephalus was confirmed on necropsy. No underlying or concurrent disease was identified.

Clinical Relevance—Hydrocephalus should be considered a differential diagnosis for parrots evaluated because of CNS signs. Computed tomography was an excellent screening tool to diagnose hydrocephalus in these patients. Compared with MRI, CT is more frequently available and offers reduced scanning times, reduced cost, and less concern for interference from metallic foreign bodies.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-year-old 4.1-kg (9.02-lb) male harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja) was evaluated because of vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss (decrease of 0.35 kg [0.77 lb]) of 4 weeks' duration. The bird had previously been treated orally with fenbendazole after the initial onset of clinical signs.

CLINICAL FINDINGS An initial CBC revealed marked heteropenia and anemia, but whole-body contrast-enhanced CT images and other diagnostic test findings were unremarkable. Clinical signs persisted, and additional diagnostic testing failed to reveal the cause. During celiotomy, a biopsy specimen of the duodenum was obtained for histologic examination, which revealed lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, consistent with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Prior to histopathologic diagnosis of IBD, barium sulfate administered via gavage resulted in a temporary improvement of clinical signs. Following diagnosis of IBD, corticosteroid administration was initiated in conjunction with antifungal prophylaxis. Cessation of vomiting and a return to normal appetite occurred within 3 days. Fifteen months after cessation of corticosteroid treatment, the eagle continued to do well.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE To our knowledge, this was the first report of diagnosis and management of IBD in an avian species. For the eagle of the present report, results of several diagnostic tests increased clinical suspicion of IBD, but histologic examination of an intestinal biopsy specimen was required for definitive diagnosis. Although successful in this case, steroid administration in avian species must be carefully considered. Conclusive evidence of fenbendazole toxicosis was not obtained, although it was highly suspected in this bird.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Case Description—A 6-year-old neutered male Boston Terrier was examined to determine the cause of sneezing, bilateral nasal discharge, nasal congestion, lethargy, and coughing of 2 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—An undifferentiated nasal carcinoma was diagnosed. During computed tomography (CT) evaluation of response to tomotherapy radiation treatment, a mandibular dentigerous cyst, associated with an unerupted left mandibular first premolar, was monitored for expansion.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog had a profound response to radiation treatment, and the nasal carcinoma totally resolved. It was determined on the basis of CT that the rate of expansion of the dentigerous cyst was placing the dog at risk for mandibular fracture and loss of vitality to the surrounding teeth. The unerupted left mandibular first premolar and associated dentigerous cyst were surgically removed and submitted for histologic evaluation.

Clinical Relevance—Images obtained during sequential CT evaluations performed after radiation treatment of nasal carcinoma should be examined for evidence of the primary neoplasm as well as to detect unrelated lesions of the orofacial region that can compromise the quality of life. Findings of CT evaluations can be used to determine when and how to initiate treatment for dentigerous cysts in regard to the patient's response to radiation treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association