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To investigate job satisfaction and engagement among credentialed veterinary technicians (CVTs) employed in the United States.


873 CVTs who responded to an internet-based survey in 2017.


A survey was conducted to collect information on demographics, individual engagement, and job satisfaction among a convenience sample of CVTs in the United States. Only responses from those employed in small animal practice were included. Demographic and job-related factors were evaluated for associations with individual engagement and job satisfaction.


The mean (SD) score for overall individual engagement (7-point Likert scale, with 7 representing strong engagement) was 4.9 (1.0) and for job satisfaction (7 representing extreme satisfaction) was 5.4 (1.5). Factors associated with lower individual engagement and lower job satisfaction included most frequently working overnight shifts and having more veterinarians in the respondent's practice, whereas holding a supervisory role, receiving a higher hourly wage, and having more veterinary technicians in the practice were significantly associated with higher individual engagement and higher job satisfaction, with other variables held constant. Having a veterinary technician specialist designation was not associated with individual engagement or job satisfaction.


To the authors’ knowledge, this was the first study to investigate factors associated with individual engagement and job satisfaction among CVTs in the United States. Employers should review these factors and support and enhance those associated with enhanced engagement and increased job satisfaction. Employers should regularly review factors identified as negatively associated with job satisfaction and engagement and do their best to mitigate them.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the clinical and immunologic response in healthy dogs to infusions of human serum albumin (HSA).

Animals—9 healthy purpose-bred mixed-breed dogs.

Procedures—Each dog was administered a 25% HSA solution once or twice. Various physical examination and laboratory variables were serially evaluated. Antibody against HSA was assayed before and after infusion by use of an ELISA. Intradermal testing was also conducted. A repeated-measures ANOVA or Friedman repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks was used to compare results for the variables.

Results—Adverse clinical reactions were observed after the first or second infusion in 3 dogs. Anaphylactoid reactions were observed in 1 of 9 dogs during the first infusion and in 2 of 2 dogs administered a second infusion. Two dogs developed severe edema and urticaria 6 or 7 days after an initial infusion. All dogs developed anti-HSA antibodies. Positive responses for ID tests were observed in 8 of 9 dogs. Short-term increases were detected in blood protein, total bilirubin, and calcium concentrations after HSA infusion. Serum cholesterol concentrations and platelet counts decreased after HSA infusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of HSA resulted in profound reactions in 2 of 9 dogs administered a single infusion and in 2 of 2 dogs administered a second infusion. This indicates that there is risk of life-threatening adverse reactions to HSA infusion in healthy dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


To determine whether low doses of synthetic ACTH could induce a maximal cortisol response in clinically normal dogs and to compare a low-dose ACTH stimulation protocol to a standard high-dose ACTH stimulation protocol in dogs with hyperadreno-corticism.


Cohort study.


6 clinically normal dogs and 7 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.


Each clinically normal dog was given 1 of 3 doses of cosyntropin (1, 5, or 10 μg/kg [0.45, 2.3, or 4.5 μg/lb] of body weight, IV) in random order at 2-week intervals. Samples for determination of plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations were obtained before and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ACTH administration. Each dog with hyperadrenocorticism was given 2 doses of cosyntropin (5 μg/kg or 250 μg/dog) in random order at 2-week intervals. In these dogs, samples for determination of plasma cortisol concentrations were obtained before and 60 minutes after ACTH administration.


In the clinically normal dogs, peak cortisol concentration and area under the plasma cortisol response curve did not differ significantly among the 3 doses. However, mean plasma cortisol concentration in dogs given 1 μg/kg peaked at 60 minutes, whereas dogs given doses of 5 or 10 μg/kg had peak cortisol values at 90 minutes. In dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, significant differences were not detected between cortisol concentrations after administration of the low or high dose of cosyntropin.

Ctinical Implications

Administration of cosyntropin at a rate of 5 μg/kg resulted in maximal stimulation of the adrenal cortex in clinically normal dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:1497-1501)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association