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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the most commonly isolated bacteria cultured from synovial fluid samples from horses with suspected septic synovitis treated at an equine referral hospital between May 1, 2008, and September 24, 2017.

SAMPLE

131 synovial fluid samples from 108 client-owned horses.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective medical record search was conducted to identify horses with suspected septic synovitis and results of synovial fluid bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Data collected included signalment, known or suspected origin of synovial contamination, synovial structures affected, antimicrobial treatment, and results of synovial fluid cytologic evaluation and bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Horses were grouped as adults (≥ 6 months old) or foals (< 6 months old).

RESULTS

Results of bacterial culture were positive for 34 of 70 (49%) and 18 of 61 (30%) samples from 68 adult horses and 40 foals, respectively. Gram-positive bacteria were more common in adult horses, whereas gram-negative bacteria were more common in foals. No multidrug-resistant microorganisms were identified. For adult horses, 92% (23/25) of gram-positive isolates tested with penicillin and gentamicin were susceptible to the combination. For foals, 94% (15/16) of isolates tested with penicillin, gentamicin, or both had susceptibility to 1 or both antimicrobials.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Periodic review of bacterial profiles and antimicrobial susceptibility in horses with septic synovitis can help to detect early changes in bacterial pressure and antimicrobial resistance. Findings suggested that in the geographic area we serve, a combination of penicillin and gentamicin would be an effective empirical antimicrobial treatment for most horses with septic synovitis while results of bacterial culture and susceptibility are pending.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of paratuberculosis on culling, milk production, and milk quality in infected dairy herds.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—689 lactating dairy cows in 9 herds.

Procedure—Milk, blood, and fecal samples were obtained from all cows. Fecal samples were evaluated via mycobacterial culture. Serum samples were tested with a commercially available ELISA for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis, and preserved milk samples were tested with an ELISA for antibodies against M paratuberculosis. Mixed effect and proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of paratuberculosis on 305-day milk, fat, and protein production; somatic cell count linear score; and the risk of culling.

Results—Cows with positive results of bacteriologic culture of feces and milk ELISA produced less milk, fat, and protein, compared with herdmates with negative results. No difference in 305-day milk or fat production was detected in cows with positive results of serum ELISA, compared with seronegative cows. The 3 survival analyses revealed that cows with positive results of each test were at higher risk of being culled than cows with negative results. Paratuberculosis status, as determined by use of all 3 diagnostic tests, was not associated with milk somatic cell count linear score.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that for the 9 herds in this study, paratuberculosis significantly decreased milk production and cow longevity. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1302–1308)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether results obtained for milk and serum samples with ELISAs intended for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in dairy cows were comparable to results obtained by means of mycobacterial culture of fecal samples.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—689 lactating dairy cows in 9 Ontario herds.

Procedure—Milk, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from all cows. Fecal samples were submitted for mycobacterial culture. Serum samples were tested with a commercially available ELISA for antibodies against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, and preserved milk samples were tested with an indirect ELISA for antibodies against M paratuberculosis.

Results—Results were positive for 130 of the 689 (18.9%) serum samples, 77 of the 689 (11.1%) milk samples, and 72 of the 689 (10.4%) fecal samples. The level of agreement between results for milk and serum samples was only moderate. Proportions of positive results for serum and fecal samples were significantly different, but proportions of positive results for milk and fecal samples were not significantly different. In addition, results for milk samples had a higher level of agreement with results of mycobacterial culture than did results for serum samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the indirect ELISA used on milk samples may be a convenient method of detecting paratuberculosis in dairy herds. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005; 226:424–428)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in the lungs of cattle at various times after arrival at a feedlot, to measure the relationship between clinical disease status and the concentration and genotype of M bovis within the lungs, and to investigate changes in the genotype of M bovis over time.

Sample—Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 328 healthy or pneumonic beef cattle and 20 M bovis isolates obtained from postmortem samples.

Procedures—The concentration of M bovis in BALF was determined via real-time PCR assays, and M bovis isolates from BALF were genotyped via amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.

Results—Prevalence of M bovis in BALF was 1 of 60 (1.7%) at arrival to a feedlot and 26 of 36 (72.2%) and 36 of 42 (85.7%) at ≤ 15 days and 55 days after arrival, respectively. Neither the concentration nor the AFLP type of M bovis in BALF was correlated with clinical disease status. The M bovis AFLP type differed between early and later sampling periods in 14 of 17 cattle.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The findings implied spread of M bovis among calves and suggested that host factors and copathogens may determine disease outcomes in infected calves. Chronic pulmonary infection with M bovis may represent a dynamic situation of bacterial clearance and reinfection with strains of different AFLP type, rather than continuous infection with a single clone. These findings impact our understanding of why cattle with chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome inadequately respond to antimicrobial treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research