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  • Author or Editor: Maria T. Correa x
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Abstract

Objective—To identify the geographic distribution of babesiosis among dogs in the United States and determine, for dogs other than American Pit Bull Terriers (APBTs), whether infection was associated with a recent dog bite.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—150 dogs.

Procedure—Canine blood samples submitted to the North Carolina State University Vector-Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between May 2000 and October 2003 for which results of a Babesia-specific polymerase chain reaction assay were positive were identified, and breed and geographic origin of dogs from which samples were obtained were recorded. History and hematologic abnormalities for dogs that were not APBTs were recorded, and possible associations with a recent dog bite were examined.

Results—Dogs positive for Babesia DNA were located in 29 states and 1 Canadian province (Ontario). Babesia gibsoni was the most commonly detected species, with B gibsoni DNA detected in blood samples from 131 of 144 (91%) dogs. Of the 131 dogs positive for B gibsoni DNA, 122 (93%) were APBTs. Of the 10 dogs positive for Babesia canis vogeli DNA, 6 were Greyhounds. In dogs other than APBTs, there was an association between having recently been bitten by another dog, particularly an APBT, and infection with B gibsoni.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results document an expansion of the known geographic range for babesiosis among dogs in the United States. Testing for babesiosis should be pursued in dogs with clinicopathologic abnormalities consistent with immunemediated hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopenia, particularly if there is a history of a recent dog bite. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:942–947)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of fecal sample storage and delayed secondary enrichment (DSE) on detection of Salmonella spp in swine feces.

Sample Population

Fecal samples obtained from 84 pigs in a commercial herd.

Procedure

Each fecal sample underwent 3 storage treatments: no storage (ie, processed on the day of collection), storage at 4 C for 6 days, and storage at −15 C for 14 days. After assigned storage treatments, all samples were enriched in Rappaport-Vassiladias (RV) broth (single enrichment) and plated on XLT4 agar. Delayed secondary enrichment was performed, using single enrichment broths that were stored for 4 days at room temperature.

Results

Of 504 cultures, 186 (36.9%) were Salmonella positive. A difference in proportions of samples with positive results was not found between same-day processing and storage at 4 C for 6 days. Compared with use of single enrichment for 24 hours (34% positive), use of DSE resulted in a greater proportion (40%; P < 0.001) of samples with positive results. Estimated relative sensitivities for the storage methods were 0.90, 0.85, and 0.71 for same-day processing, storage at 4 C for 6 days, and storage at −15 C for 14 days, respectively.

Conclusions

Where practical, processing of fecal samples on the day of collection is recommended, although storage at 4 C for several days does not result in marked loss of sensitivity. Improved detection associated with DSE warrants further investigation and optimization. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:359–362)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine seroprevalence to Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii in a population of sick dogs from North Carolina and Virginia and to evaluate potential risk factors associated with increased likelihood of exposure to the organism.

Sample Population

Serum samples from 1,920 sick dogs.

Procedure

An indirect fluorescent antibody assay was performed on each sample, and the end-point antibody titer was recorded. A case (seropositive) was defined as a dog with reciprocal titer ≥ 64, and a control (seronegative) was defined as a dog with reciprocal titer < 16 that was referred within 0 to 3 days of referral of a corresponding case. From this population, 207 dogs (69 cases and 138 controls) were included in a case-control seroepidemiologic study.

Results

3.6% (69/1,920) of the dogs were seropositive to B vinsonii subsp berkhoffii. Results of the casecontrol study indicated that seropositive dogs were more likely to live in rural environments, frequently on a farm, were free to roam the neighborhood, and were considered to be predominantly outdoor dogs. Moreover, seropositive dogs were 14 times more likely to have a history of heavy tick exposure. After analysis of the case-control study, a more detailed examination of banked sera from dogs with known tick exposure was performed. High correlation was found between seroreactivity to B vinsonii and seroreactivity to E canis or B canis (36.0 and 57.1%, respectively). Sera derived from dogs experimentally infected with E canis or R rickettsii did not cross react with B vinsonii antigen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Several potential risk factors are associated with canine exposure to B vinsonii. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the tick vector for E canis and B canis, may be involved in B vinsonii transmission among dogs. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:467–471)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A case-control study was done to identify factors associated with the development of equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (edm). Questionnaires were mailed to the owners of 146 horses admitted to the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine between November 1978 and June 1987 and diagnosed as having edm by histologic examination. Questionnaires also were sent to owners of 402 clinically normal horses admitted to the college during the same period. Data were compared between the edm-affected and control groups (56 and 179 questionnaires returned, respectively). Risk factors identified included the use of insecticide applied to foals, exposure of foals to wood preservatives, and foals frequently spending time on dirt lots while outside. Foals spending time outside on green pastures was a protective factor. Foals from dams that had had an edm-affected foal were at higher risk of developing edm than were foals from other dams.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), and cortisol frequently are quantified in canine serum or plasma samples to aid in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, hypoadrenocorticism, and hyperadrenocorticism. Many laboratories have established reliable references values for concentrations of these hormones in blood of clinically normal animals. However, nonpathologic factors that affect thyroidal and adrenocortical secretion may lead to misinterpretation of test results when values for individual animals are compared with reference values. The objective of the study reported here was to identify effects of age, sex, and body size (ie, breed) on serum concentrations of T3, T4, and cortisol in dogs.

Blood samples were collected from 1,074 healthy dogs, and serum concentrations of the iodothyronines and cortisol were evaluated for effects of breed/size, sex, and age. Mean (± sem) serum concentration of T4 was greater in small (2.45 ± 0.06 μg/dl)- than in medium (1.94 ± 0.04 μg/dl)- or large (2.03 ± 0.03 μg/dl)-breed dogs, the same in females (2.11 ± 0.04 μg/dl) and males (2.08 ± 0.04 μ/dl), and greater in nursing pups (3.04 ± 0.05 μg/dl) than in weanling pups (1.94 ± 0.05 μg/dl), rapidly growing dogs (1.95 ± 0.04 μg/dl), and young adult (1.90 ± 0.06 μg/dl), middle-aged adult (1.72 ± 0.05 μg/dl), or old adult (1.50 ± 0.05 μg/dl) dogs. Dogs > 6 years old had lower mean serum T4 concentration than did dogs of all other ages, except middle-aged adults. Mean serum T3 concentration in medium-sized dogs (1.00 ± 0.01 ng/ml) was greater than that in small (0.90 ± 0.01 ng/ml)- and large (0.88 ± 0.01 ng/ml)-breed dogs. Serum T3 concentration was lowest in nursing (0.85 ± 0.01 ng/ml) and weanling (0.77 ± 0.02 ng/ml) pups, increased in rapidly growing dogs (0.99 ± 0.01 ng/ml) and young adult dogs (1.10 ± 0.04 ng/ml), and decreased slightly in middleaged (0.98 ± 0.02 ng/ml) and old (1.01 ± 0.03 ng/ml) adult dogs. Serum T3 concentration was unaffected by sex. Mean serum cortisol concentration was greater in small (1.06 ± 0.07 μg/dl)- than in large (0.79 ± 0.03 μg/ dl)-breed dogs. Serum from nursing pups (0.57 ± 0.04 μg/ dl) contained less cortisol than did serum from older dogs (mean values ≥ 0.92 μg/dl). Serum cortisol concentration was not different between males and females. These effects of breed/size and age on serum T3, T4, and cortisol concentrations should be considered when evaluating thyroid and adrenocortical functions in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether basal serum or plasma cortisol concentration can be used as a screening test to rule out hypoadrenocorticism in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—110 dogs with nonadrenal gland illnesses and 13 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism.

Procedures—Sensitivity and specificity of basal serum or plasma cortisol concentrations of either ≤ 1 μg/dL or ≤ 2 μg/dL to detect dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were estimated by use of the ACTH stimulation test as the gold standard.

Results—Basal cortisol concentrations of ≤ 1 μg/dL had excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (98.2%) for detecting dogs with hypoadrenocorticism. For basal cortisol concentrations of ≤ 2 μg/dL, sensitivity was 100% but specificity was 78.2%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of sensitivity and specificity, basal serum or plasma cortisol concentrations had high negative predictive values over a wide range of prevalence rates and can be used to rule out a diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism. Dogs with basal cortisol concentrations > 2 μg/dL that are not receiving corticosteroids, mitotane, or ketoconazole are highly unlikely to have hypoadrenocorticism. However, if the basal cortisol concentration is ≤ 2 μg/dL, little to no information regarding adrenal gland function can be obtained and an ACTH stimulation test should be performed.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association