Objective—To determine the optimum reaction conditions and detection limits of PCR assay for identification of Pentatrichomonas hominis in DNA extracted from canine feces.
Sample Population—DNA extracted from feces of 4 dogs with diarrhea from which trichomonads were observed, 81 dogs that had feces submitted to a diagnostic laboratory, and 19 dogs residing in a laboratory animal facility.
Procedures—Optimum reaction conditions and absolute and practical detection limits of 2 P hominis 18S species-specific primer pairs were determined by use of an in vitro cultivated canine isolate of P hominis in the presence and absence of canine feces. The optimized PCR assay was applied to amplification of P hominis 18S rRNA genes from DNA extracted from the feces of dogs.
Results—Under optimized conditions, a primer pair was identified as able to detect as few as 1 P hominis organism/180-mg fecal sample. The PCR assay identified P hominis in diarrheic feces of 4 dogs in which trichomonads were seen by light microscopy. The P hominis genes were not amplified from other fecal samples examined.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Molecular identification of P hominis in feces of 4 dogs with trichomonosis and diarrhea reported here validates the identity of this species in such infections. Sensitive and specific PCR amplification of P hominis 18S rRNA genes from DNA extracted from feces will directly facilitate studies examining pathogenicity of this trichomonad and enable differentiation of P hominis from other known or novel species of trichomonads that may infect the gastrointestinal tract of dogs.
Objective—To determine the efficacy of tinidazole for treatment of cats with experimentally induced Tritrichomonas foetus infection.
Animals—8 specific-pathogen-free kittens.
Procedures—Tinidazole was tested for activity against a feline isolate of T foetus in vitro. Kittens were infected orogastrically with the same isolate and treated or not with tinidazole (30 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 14 days). Amoxicillin was administered 28 weeks after completion of tinidazole administration to induce diarrhea. Feces were repeatedly tested for T foetus by use of PCR assay and microbial culture for 33 weeks.
Results—Tinidazole killed T foetus at concentrations ≥ 10 μg/mL in vitro. In experimentally induced infection, tinidazole administered at 30 mg/kg decreased T foetus below the limit of molecular detection in 2 of 4 cats. Recrudescent shedding of T foetus, as elicited by amoxicillin-induced diarrhea, was diminished in cats that received prior treatment with tinidazole.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although tinidazole decreased the detection of T foetus and treated cats were resistant to later efforts to incite the infection, inability of tinidazole to eradicate infection in many cats poses a serious impediment to the drug’s effectiveness in practice.