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  • Author or Editor: Maria E. Prado x
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To determine whether epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride to cattle induced analgesia of the perineum and to compare analgesic and systemic effects of epidural versus IM administration of detomidine at a dose of 40 μg/kg in cattle.


18 healthy adult cows.


6 cows were given detomidine by epidural administration, 6 were given detomidine IM, and 6 (control group) were not given detomidine. Analgesia was assessed by determining responses to needle pinpricks in the perineum and flank and by applying electrical stimuli to the perineum and flank and determining the voltage that induced an avoidance response. Degree of sedation and ataxia were scored, and mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and frequency of ruminal contractions were measured.


Epidural and IM administration of detomidine induced comparable degrees of analgesia of the perineum and flank, accompanied by moderate sedation and ataxia, hypertension, cardiorespiratory depression, and rumen hypomotility.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Epidural and IM administration of detomidine at a dose of 40 µg/kg induced similar analgesic and systemic effects in cattle. Epidural administration of detomidine did not appear to be advantageous over IM administration. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1242–1247)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of ponazuril to healthy llamas.

Animals—6 healthy adult llamas.

Procedures—Ponazuril (20 mg/kg) was administered once orally to 6 llamas (day 0). Blood samples were obtained on days 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49. Serum ponazuril concentrations were determined by use of a validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay with UV absorbance detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived by use of a standard noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis.

Results—Mean ± SD area under the serum concentration–time curve was 7,516 ± 2,750 h•mg/L, maximum serum ponazuril concentration was 23.6 ± 6.0 mg/L, and the elimination half-life was 135.5 ± 16.7 hours. Serum concentration of ponazuril peaked at 84 hours (range, 48 to 120 hours) after administration and gradually decreased but remained detectable for up to 35 days after administration. No adverse effects were observed during the study period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The rate and extent of absorption following oral administration of a single dose of ponazuril were sufficient to result in potentially effective concentrations, and the drug was tolerated well by llamas. At this dose, ponazuril resulted in serum concentrations that were high enough to be effective against various Apicomplexans on the basis of data for other species. The effective ponazuril concentration that will induce 50% inhibition of parasite growth for Eimeria macusaniensis in camelids is currently unknown.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research