To evaluate IV iron sucrose safety and impact on hematologic and iron indices in healthy cats.
5 healthy research cats.
Cats were administered iron sucrose (0.5 mg/kg, IV) over 30 minutes. Monitoring for acute reactions (temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure) was performed every 5 minutes during injection and every 15 minutes for an additional hour. Baseline, 24-hour, and 1-, 2-, and 3-week postinjection measurements of CBC with reticulocyte indices, iron panel (ferritin, total iron-binding capacity, and iron), calculated transferrin saturation (TSAT), and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentration were performed.
No cat experienced an acute drug reaction. SAA concentration was increased at 24 hours versus baseline. TSAT and ferritin decreased over time, with 3 cats developing concurrent functional iron deficiency (FID) and anemia. Hct (Spearman correlation [rs] = 0.805), hemoglobin (rs = 0.770), and reticulocyte hemoglobin content (rs = 0.581) correlated with TSAT.
IV iron sucrose was well tolerated in healthy cats but was associated with transient increase in the systemic inflammatory marker SAA. Efficacy evaluation of dose based on iron deficit is needed in sick cats. Despite cumulative blood draw volume below recommended limits, anemia and FID were observed, which has important implications for experimental designs and serial hematologic monitoring. Further evaluation of inflammatory response to IV iron sucrose administration is warranted.
To compare plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) concentrations in dogs with treatment-naïve chronic enteropathies to healthy dogs and describe changes over time in dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE).
18 client-owned dogs with treatment-naïve CE and 17 client-owned healthy control dogs.
This was a prospective study. Fasting, 1-hour, and 3-hour postprandial plasma GLP-2 concentrations were measured using a commercial immunoassay in healthy dogs and dogs with uncontrolled, untreated CE. Repeated fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations were measured in dogs with CE after initiating directed treatment for gastrointestinal disease.
There was no significant difference between fasting and postprandial GLP-2 concentrations in either group. Dogs with treatment-naïve CE had lower fasting (mean, 424 ± SD 176 pg/mL) plasma GLP-2 concentrations than healthy dogs (1184 ± 435 pg/mL; P < .0001). Fasted plasma GLP-2 concentrations (624 ± 314 pg/mL) remained lower in dogs with CE than in healthy dogs at recheck.
Dogs with CE have disrupted GLP-2 secretion. Future studies are required to evaluate subsets of CE and changes in response to therapy.
OBJECTIVE To measure effects of oral Akkermansia muciniphila administration on systemic markers of gastrointestinal permeability and epithelial damage following antimicrobial administration in dogs.
ANIMALS 8 healthy adult dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either A muciniphila (109 cells/kg; n = 4) or vehicle (PBS solution; 4) for 6 days following metronidazole administration (12.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 7 d). After a 20-day washout period, the same dogs received the alternate treatment. After another washout period, experiments were repeated with amoxicillin-clavulanate (13.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) instead of metronidazole. Fecal consistency was scored, a quantitative real-time PCR assay for A muciniphila in feces was performed, and plasma concentrations of cytokeratin-18, lipopolysaccharide, and glucagon-like peptides were measured by ELISA before (T0) and after (T1) antimicrobial administration and after administration of A muciniphila or vehicle (T2).
RESULTSA muciniphila was detected in feces in 7 of 8 dogs after A muciniphila treatment at T2 (3/4 experiments) but not at T0 or T1. After metronidazole administration, mean change in plasma cytokeratin-18 concentration from T1 to T2 was significantly lower with vehicle than with A muciniphila treatment (−0.27 vs 2.4 ng/mL). Mean cytokeratin-18 concentration was lower at T1 than at T0 with amoxicillin-clavulanate. No other significant biomarker concentration changes were detected. Probiotic administration was not associated with changes in fecal scores. No adverse effects were attributed to A muciniphila treatment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Detection of A muciniphila in feces suggested successful gastrointestinal transit following oral supplementation in dogs. Plasma cytokeratin-18 alterations suggested an effect on gastrointestinal epithelium. Further study is needed to investigate effects in dogs with naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease.
To assess the pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of injectable methadone with the pharmacokinetic enhancer fluconazole (methadone-fluconazole), compared with the standard formulation of injectable methadone, in dogs after ovariohysterectomy. We hypothesized that 2 doses of methadone-fluconazole would provide 24 hours of postoperative analgesia.
3 purpose-bred dogs (pharmacokinetic preliminary study) and 42 female dogs from local shelters (clinical trial) were included.
Pharmacokinetics were preliminarily determined. Clinical trial client-owned dogs were blocked by body weight into treatment groups: standard methadone group (methadone standard formulation, 0.5 mg/kg, SC, q 4 h; n = 20) or methadone-fluconazole group (0.5 mg/kg methadone with 2.5 mg/kg fluconazole, SC, repeated once at 6 h; n = 22). All dogs also received acepromazine, propofol, and isoflurane. Surgeries were performed by experienced surgeons, and dogs were monitored perioperatively using the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale–Short Form (CMPS-SF) and sedation scales. Evaluators were masked to treatment.
Findings from pharmacokinetic preliminary studies supported that 2 doses of methadone-fluconazole provide 24 hours of drug exposure. The clinical trial had no significant differences in treatment failures or postoperative CMPS-SF scores between treatments. One dog (methadone-fluconazole group) had CMPS-SF > 6 and received rescue analgesia. All dogs had moderate sedation or less by 1 hour (methadone-fluconazole group) or 4 hours (standard methadone group) postoperatively. Sedation was completely resolved in all dogs the day after surgery.
Methadone-fluconazole with twice-daily administration was well tolerated and provided effective postoperative analgesia for dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Clinical compliance and postoperative pain control may improve with an effective twice-daily formulation.