Case Description—An 8-year-old castrated male Boxer and a 10-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier were evaluated because of dyspnea. In both dogs, the dyspnea persisted after elongated soft palate resection.
Clinical Findings—Laryngoscopic examination revealed caudal displacement of the epiglottis into the rima glottidis in both dogs. Excessive mobility of the epiglottis during respiration with episodic obstruction of the rima glottidis by the epiglottis was observed during fluoroscopic examination.
Treatment and Outcome—The epiglottis of both dogs was fixed in a horizontal plane by resection of a band of oral mucosa at the base of the epiglottis and closure of the mucosal defect with sutures. Fixation of the epiglottis resolved the dyspnea in both dogs.
Clinical Relevance—Excessive mobility of the epiglottis can predispose to glottic obstruction and cause dyspnea in dogs. Fixation of the epiglottis in a horizontal plane may resolve dyspnea caused by epiglottic retroversion in dogs.
Objective—To describe and compare CT abnormalities of the middle ear in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that had clinical or subclinical middle ear disease and to determine the prevalence of otitis media and evaluate the role of predisposing factors for otitis media in that species.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—88 domestic rabbits.
Procedures—Medical records for rabbits that underwent CT of the head in June 2007 through February 2014 were searched and classified on the basis of reason for head CT (ie, ear-related disease vs non–ear-related disease). The ears, upper respiratory tract, teeth, and other important structures of each rabbit's head were evaluated. Follow-up information was obtained for rabbits with CT abnormalities of the middle ear without clinical signs (ie, subclinical disease).
Results—12 of 21 (57%) rabbits with clinical signs of ear disease and 18 of 67 (27%) rabbits without clinical signs of ear disease had CT abnormalities of the middle ear. In CT images, all affected ears had soft tissue–attenuating material within the tympanic bulla. Tympanic bulla lysis was associated with clinical middle ear disease. Most (12/18) rabbits with subclinical middle ear disease remained subclinical after CT examination. Middle ear CT-detected changes and lop-ear conformation or otitis externa were strongly correlated; middle ear disease and upper respiratory tract disease were not correlated.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggested that subclinical otitis media frequently affects rabbits, and those with bulla lysis should be closely monitored. Lop-eared rabbits and rabbits with otitis externa had a higher risk of developing otitis media.
Objective—To determine the complementary DNA
(cDNA) sequence of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist
(IL-1ra) in horses and compare messenger RNA
(mRNA) expression of IL-1ra among horses of various
Sample Population—Blood samples from neonatal
and adult horses examined for a variety of diseases.
Procedure—A polymerase chain reaction procedure
was used to amplify a 220 base pair (bp) portion of
the genomic DNA. The upstream and downstream
regions of the cDNA sequence were determined by
means of 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends
(RACE) procedures. Northern blot hybridization was
used to examine steady-state mRNA expression of IL-
Results—The consensus sequence of the cDNA
obtained with the 5'-RACE procedure and the
sequence for the 220 bp portion of the genomic DNA
represented the putative sequence for secreted IL-
1ra. The predicted secreted IL-1ra amino acid
sequence contained 176 residues with an in-frame
stop codon; the N-terminal 25 amino acid residues
resembled the signal peptide reported for human
secreted IL-1ra. An approximately 1.3 kilobase pair (kb)
band that represented a portion of the 3' end of the
coding region and the 3' untranslated region was
obtained by use of the 3' -RACE procedure. Northern
blot hybridization detected a 1.6 kb transcript in blood
RNA from adult Arabian, Belgian, Thoroughbred, and
Conclusions—Results suggest that the DNA for
equine secreted IL-1ra has a short (29 bp) 5' untranslated
region, a 534 bp coding region, and a long
(approximately 1,080 bp) untranslated region. (Am J
Vet Res 2000;61:920–924)
Objective—To determine whether frontal-sinus size is associated with syringohydromyelia.
Sample Population—Medical records and magnetic resonance images of 62 small-breed dogs.
Procedures—Medical records and magnetic resonance images were reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of frontal-sinus size and syringohydromyelia. A Yates-corrected 2-tailed χ2 test was used to determine whether an association existed between absent or miniscule frontal sinuses and syringohydromyelia. The strength of the association was evaluated by means of prevalence and odds ratios.
Results—Absent or miniscule air-filled frontal sinuses were detected in 28 of 62 (45%) dogs, and syringohydromyelia was detected in 12 of 62 (19%) dogs. Syringohydromyelia was detected in 10 of 28 dogs with absent or miniscule frontal sinuses (prevalence, 36%; 95% confidence interval, 16% to 55%) and in 2 of 34 dogs with larger frontal sinuses (prevalence, 6%; confidence interval, 0% to 15%). The probability of detecting syringohy-dromyelia in dogs with absent or miniscule air-filled frontal sinuses was significantly greater than the probability of detecting it in dogs with larger frontal sinuses. The prevalence ratio was 6.1, and the odds ratio was 8.9.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An association between frontal-sinus size and syringohydromyelia was identified in small-breed dogs, suggesting that the pathogenesis of syringohydromyelia in some instances may involve abnormal development of the entire or supratentorial part of the cranium, as opposed to being limited to the infratentorial part.