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  • Author or Editor: Margo Mehl x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To document the signalment; history; clinical signs; clinicopathologic, diagnostic imaging, and surgical findings; perioperative complications; and long-term clinical results of ameroid ring constrictor (ARC) placement on single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (PSS) in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—23 cats treated with an ARC on a single extrahepatic PSS.

Procedure—An ARC was placed surgically around the PSS. Portal pressure was measured prior to ARC placement, with complete temporary PSS occlusion, and after ARC placement. Cats were scheduled for recheck transcolonic portal scintigraphy 8 to 10 weeks after surgery. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone interview with the owners.

Results—An ARC was successfully placed in 22 of 23 cats. Intraoperative complications, consisting of PSS hemorrhage, occurred in 2 cats. Mean (± SD) portal pressure (n = 15) was 6.7 ± 2.9 mm Hg before PSS manipulation, 18.6 ± 7.7 mm Hg with complete temporary PSS occlusion, and 6.9 ± 2.7 mm Hg after ARC placement. Postoperative complications developed in 77% (17 of 22) of cats after ARC placement, and included central blindness, hyperthermia, frantic behavior, and generalized motor seizures. Perioperative mortality rate was 4.3% (1 of 23). Persistent shunting was identified in 8 of 14 cats. Overall, 75% (15 of 20) of cats had an excellent longterm outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement of an ARC on single extrahepatic PSS in cats resulted in low surgical complication and perioperative mortality rates, but most cats did have substantial postoperative complications. Persistent shunting was common, although many cats with persistent shunting were clinically normal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220: 1341–1347)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between plasma β-endorphin (EN) concentrations and exercise intensity and duration in horses.

Animals—8 mares with a mean age of 6 years (range, 3 to 13 years) and mean body weight of 450 kg.

Procedure—Horses were exercised for 20 minutes at 60% of maximal oxygen consumption (O2max) and to fatigue at 95% O2max. Plasma EN concentrations were determined before exercise, after a 10- minute warmup period, after 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes at 60% O2max or at the point of fatigue (95% O2max), and at regular intervals after exercise. Glucose concentrations were determined at the same times EN concentrations were measured. Plasma lactate concentration was measured 5 minutes after exercise.

Results—Maximum EN values were recorded 0 to 45 minutes after horses completed each test. Significant time and intensity effects on EN concentrations were detected. Concentrations were significantly higher following exercise at 95% O2max, compared with those after 20 minutes of exercise at 60% O2max (605.2 ± 140.6 vs 312.3 ± 53.1 pg/ml). Plasma EN concentration was not related to lactate concentration and was significantly but weakly correlated with glucose concentration for exercise at both intensities (r = 0.21 and 0.30 for 60 and 95% O2max, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A critical exercise threshold exists for EN concentration in horses, which is 60% O2max or less and is related to exercise intensity and duration. Even under conditions of controlled exercise there may be considerable differences in EN concentrations between horses. This makes the value of comparing horses on the basis of their EN concentration questionable. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:969–973)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate long-term clinical outcome in dogs with upper airway obstruction treated with laryngeal web resection and mucosal apposition.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—15 client-owned dogs with laryngeal web formation.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs with laryngeal webs treated with a single procedure of web resection with mucosal apposition by use of a ventral laryngotomy were reviewed. Signalment, history, clinical signs, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, and hospitalization time were recorded. Owners were interviewed 6 months to 6 years after surgery.

Results—Most dogs had a history of oral ventriculocordectomy. Duration of clinical signs ranged from 3 months to 3 years. The most common clinical sign reported was exercise intolerance. Postoperative complications were observed in 4 dogs. Follow-up information was available in 10 dogs, and clinical outcome was classified as excellent in 7 and good in 3.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A single surgical procedure of web resection with mucosal apposition for the treatment of laryngeal web formation in dogs resulted in low morbidity and was associated with a good to excellent outcome.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To evaluate use of an ameroid ring constrictor (ARC) for treatment for single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (PSSs) and identify factors associated with postoperative death, continued portosystemic shunting, and long-term outcome in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—168 dogs with a single extrahepatic PSS.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs that had a single extrahepatic PSS and were treated with an ARC were reviewed. Signalment, history, clinical signs, results of preoperative blood analyses and portal pressure measurements, PSS location, ARC size, postoperative complications, and postoperative scintigraphy results were recorded. Owners were interviewed 6 months to 6 years after surgery.

Results—Postoperative complications developed in 10% of dogs. Postoperative mortality rate was 7.1%. Predictive factors for postoperative death included high preoperative WBC count and postoperative complications. Twenty-one percent of dogs in which portal scintigraphy was performed 6 to 10 weeks after surgery had continued shunting. Predictive factors for persistent shunting included low preoperative plasma albumin concentration, high portal pressure after complete occlusion, and high portal pressure difference (postocclusion minus baseline). Clinical outcome in 108 dogs was classified as excellent (80%), good (14%), or poor (6%). Predictive factors for excellent long-term clinical outcome included high preoperative plasma albumin concentration, low preoperative leukocytosis, low portal pressure after complete occlusion, absence of postoperative seizures, and absence of continued shunting.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of an ARC for treatment for a single extrahepatic PSS resulted in low morbidity and mortality rates. Certain preoperative factors were associated with increased risk of postoperative death, continued portosystemic shunting, and long-term outcome. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226: 2020–2030)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical outcome of permanent tracheostomy in cats with upper airway obstruction.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—21 cats.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on history, signalment, clinical signs, results of preoperative clinicopathologic testing, cause of upper airway obstruction, surgical procedure, postoperative complications, and outcome.

Results—Causes of upper airway obstruction included neoplasia (squamous cell carcinoma [n = 6] or malignant lymphoma [2]), inflammatory laryngeal disease (5), laryngeal paralysis (4), trauma (3), and a laryngeal mass of unknown cause (1). Fourteen cats had dyspnea in the immediate postoperative period; dyspnea most often resulted from mucous plugs at the stoma or elsewhere in the respiratory tract. Eleven cats died, including 6 cats that died while hospitalized after surgery and 5 cats that died after discharge; 7 cats were eu-thanatized, most often because of progression of neoplasia; and 2 were still alive at the time of the study. The remaining cat was lost to follow-up after discharge from the hospital. Overall, median survival time for the 20 cats for which information was available was 20.5 days (range, 1 day to 5 years). Cats that underwent permanent tracheostomy because of inflammatory laryngeal disease were 6.61 times as likely to die as cats that underwent permanent tracheostomy for any other reason.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that permanent tracheostomy was an uncommon procedure in cats with upper airway obstruction that was associated with high complication and mortality rates.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726 (A77), inhibits replication of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) in cell culture.

Study Population—Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell cultures.

Procedures—Cell cultures were inoculated with FHV-1 and treated simultaneously with concentrations of A77 ranging from 0 to 200μM. The antiviral effect of A77 was determined by use of conventional plaque reduction assays. The effect of A77 on viral load was determined via real-time PCR analysis, and transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the effect of A77 on viral morphology. To determine whether the antiviral effect was attributable to alterations in CRFK cell viability and number, CRFK cells were treated with various concentrations of A77 and stained with Annexin V and propidium iodide to assess apoptosis and a mitochondrial function assay was used to determine cell viability.

Results—Concentrations of A77 ≥ 20μM were associated with substantial reduction in plaque number and viral load. Concentrations ≥ 100μM were associated with complete suppression of plaque formation. At low concentrations of A77, clusters of intracytoplasmic virus particles that appeared to lack tegument and an external membrane were detected. Treatment of uninfected CRFK cell monolayers with A77 was associated with reduction in mitochondrial function with minimal evidence of apoptosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leflunomide may be an alternative to current calcineurin-based immunosuppressive protocols used in feline organ transplantation because of its antiherpesviral activity.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research