To determine the rate of complications associated with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy and examine whether cat characteristics or surgeon experience level were associated with complications.
15,927 cats that underwent ovariohysterectomy with the ovarian pedicle tie procedure between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018.
Data were extracted from electronic and paper medical records. Complications were coded by a veterinarian blinded to surgeon experience level. Complications (pedicle drop or tear, pedicle hemorrhage, and pedicle-related death) were summarized as counts and percentages. Univariate associations between cat characteristics (eg, age, weight, reproductive status, and ownership) and surgeon experience level (clinic veterinarian vs training veterinarian or veterinary student) and each outcome were estimated separately for veterinarian and student training clinics.
A pedicle drop or tear occurred in 0.3% (n = 49) of cats and was significantly more likely among veterinary students. Most (41/49 [84%]) pedicle drops and tears did not result in hemorrhage. Only 19 of 15,927 (0.12%) cats had pedicle-related hemorrhage, and in all instances, hemorrhage was corrected intraoperatively without serious complication or death. Cat characteristics and surgeon experience level were not related to pedicle hemorrhage.
Results support previous evidence that the ovarian pedicle tie procedure is safe in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy when performed by experienced surgeons or novice surgeons under supervision. Given the reduced anesthetic time associated with the procedure, the ovarian pedicle tie should be considered an acceptable standard practice in all practice settings.
Objective—To determine the frequency, types, and severity of clinical signs; geographic distribution; and treatment information associated with toxicosis caused by 100% tea tree oil (TTO) in dogs and cats in the United States and Canada.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—337 dogs and 106 cats with evidence of exposure to 100% TTO.
Procedures—10-year incident data were retrieved from the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center database from January 2002 to December 2012. Only evidenced or witnessed incidents assessed as toxicosis or suspected toxicosis were included. Signalment, amount of TTO used, intention of use, and outcome information were evaluated. Severity of illness and correlations with breed, sex, age, and weight were determined.
Results—TTO was intentionally used in 395 of 443 (89%) animals. The amount used ranged from 0.1 to 85 mL. Incidents were reported from 41 states, the District of Columbia, and 4 Canadian provinces. Exposure route was cutaneous in 221 (50%) animals, cutaneous and oral in 133 (30%), and oral in 67 (15%). Clinical signs developed within 2 to 12 hours and lasted up to 72 hours. The most common signs were increased salivation or drooling, signs of CNS depression or lethargy, paresis, ataxia, and tremors. A significant association with severity of illness was found for age and weight, with higher prevalence of major illness in younger and smaller cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intentional or accidental use of 100% TTO in dogs or cats caused serious signs of CNS depression, paresis, ataxia, or tremors within hours after exposure and lasting up to 3 days. Younger cats and those with lighter body weight were at greater risk of developing major illness.
Objective—To determine the effect of vaccination
against FIV on results of serologic assays for FIV
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Animals—26 specific-pathogen-free cats, 102 laboratory-
reared cats (42 unvaccinated and uninfected, 41
vaccinated and uninfected, and 19 infected with FIV),
and 22 client-owned cats infected with FIV.
Procedure—To determine the onset and duration of
anti-FIV antibody production in cats following vaccination
with a whole-virus vaccine, serum was obtained
from the 26 specific-pathogen-free cats prior to vaccination
and weekly for 10 weeks, then monthly for 52
weeks, after vaccination; serum was tested for anti-FIV
antibodies with lateral flow and microwell plate ELISAs.
To determine the diagnostic performance of serologic
assays for FIV infection, plasma from uninfected, unvaccinated
cats; uninfected, vaccinated cats; and FIV-infected
cats was tested for FIV antibodies with the 2 ELISAs,
a western blot assay, and an immunofluorescence antibody
assay and for FIV antigen with an ELISA.
Results—Anti-FIV antibodies were detected in all 26
vaccinated cats 1 year after vaccination. Sensitivity of
the antibody assays for FIV infection was high (98%
to 100%). Specificity was high in unvaccinated cats
(90% to 100%) but poor in vaccinated cats (0% to
54%). None of the vaccinated or infected cats had
detectable FIV antigen in plasma.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that vaccination against FIV causes false-positive results
for at least 1 year with currently available serologic
assays for FIV infection. Negative FIV antibody assay
results are highly reliable for detection of uninfected
cats, but positive results should be interpreted with caution.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1558–1561)
Objective—To determine clinical signs and outcomes of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) toxicosis in dogs; to assess effects of amount (ie, dose) and formulation (immediate or extended release) of ingested MPH on onset, duration, and severity of clinical signs; and to describe management of MPH intoxication.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—128 dogs with MPH toxicosis or exposure.
Procedures—Data from an Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) database from November 1, 2001, to November 30, 2008, were reviewed. Records of dogs were searched for APCC classifications of confirmed (n = 71) or suspected (39) MPH toxicosis; dogs (18) that ingested MPH but did not develop clinical signs of toxicosis were also included. Signalment, dose, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome were evaluated.
Results—Clinical signs of toxicosis were reported in 107 of 128 (84%) dogs that ingested MPH; these included hyperactivity in 42 (33%), tachycardia in 27 (21%), vomiting in 19 (15%), agitation in 16 (13%), and hyperthermia in 13 (10%). Doses ranged from 0.36 mg/kg (0.164 mg/lb) to 117.0 mg/kg (53.18 mg/lb). Severity of clinical signs was not strongly associated with dose. More severe and prolonged clinical signs were associated with ingestion of extended-release formulations of MPH; 3 dogs that consumed these formulations (doses, 10.2 mg/kg [4.64 mg/lb], 15.4 mg/kg [700 mg/lb], and 31.1 mg/kg [14.14 mg/lb]) died. Favorable outcomes were reported for most (31/34 [91%]) dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of even small amounts of MPH can cause severe clinical signs in dogs. Monitoring and supportive care are recommended regardless of dose.
Objective—To determine the percentage of pet cats still wearing collars and having functional microchips 6 months after application.
Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.
Animals—538 client-owned cats.
Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to wear 1 of 3 types of collars: plastic buckle, breakaway plastic buckle safety, and elastic stretch safety. Each cat was fitted with the assigned collar, and a microchip was inserted SC between the scapulae. Owners completed questionnaires about their experiences and expectations of collars at enrollment and at the conclusion of the study.
Results—391 of the 538 (72.7%) cats successfully wore their collars for the entire 6-month study period. Owners' initial expectations of the cats' tolerance of the collar and the number of times the collar was reapplied on the cats' necks were the most important factors predicting success. Type of collar likely influenced how often collars needed to be reapplied. Eighteen (3.3%) cats caught a forelimb in their collar or caught their collar on an object or in their mouth. Of the 478 microchips that were scanned at the conclusion of the study, 477 (99.8%) were functional.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most cats successfully wore their collars. Because even house cats can become lost, veterinarians should recommend that all cats wear identification collars since they are the most obvious means of identifying an owned pet. For some cats, collars may frequently come off and become lost; therefore, microchips are an important form of backup identification. Owners should select a collar that their cat will tolerate and should check it often to ensure a proper fit.
Objective—To determine the sensitivity, specificity,
and overall diagnostic accuracy of polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) assays offered by commercial diagnostic
laboratories for diagnosis of FIV infection in
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Procedure—Blood was collected from cats that were
neither infected with nor vaccinated against FIV, uninfected
cats that were vaccinated with a licensed FIV
vaccine, and cats experimentally and naturally infected
with FIV representing subtypes A, B, and C. Coded
blood samples were submitted to 3 laboratories in the
United States and Canada offering PCR assays for
diagnosis of FIV infection to veterinary practitioners.
All laboratories tested fresh blood samples, and 1 laboratory
also tested samples submitted as dried blood
smears. The FIV infection status in all cats was confirmed
by virus isolation. Sensitivity, specificity, and
correct results were calculated for each PCR assay.
Results—Sensitivity ranged from 41% to 93%.
Specificity ranged from 81% to 100% in unvaccinated
cats and 44% to 95% in cats vaccinated against FIV.
Correct results were obtained in 58% to 90% of 124
cats tested. All tests misidentified both uninfected
and infected cats. False-positive results by all laboratories
were higher in cats vaccinated against FIV than
in unvaccinated cats, suggesting that vaccination
interferes with the performance or interpretation of
PCR assays used for diagnosis of FIV infection.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PCR assays
used for diagnosis of FIV infection presently marketed
to veterinary practitioners in North America vary significantly
in diagnostic accuracy and did not resolve the
diagnostic dilemma resulting from vaccination of cats
against FIV. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1503–1507)
Objective—To develop a visual analogue scale (VAS)
questionnaire that is repeatable and valid for use in
assessing pain and lameness in dogs.
Sample Population—48 client-owned dogs with
mild to moderate lameness.
Procedure—The dogs were from 3 studies conducted
during a 3-year period. Of the 48 dogs, 19 were
used in repeatability assessment, 48 were used in
principal component analysis, and 44 were used in
model selection procedures and validity testing. A
test-retest measure of repeatability was conducted
on dogs with a change of < 10% in vertical peak force.
A force platform was used as the criterion-referenced
standard for detecting lameness. Principal component
analysis was used to describe dimensionality of
the data. Repeatable questions were used as
explanatory variables in multiple regression models to
predict force plate measurements. Peak vertical, craniocaudal,
and associated impulses were the forces
used to quantify lameness. The regression models
were used to test the criterion validity of the questionnaire.
Results—19 of 39 questions were found to be
repeatable on the basis of a Spearman rank-correlation
cut point of > 0.6. Model selection procedures
resulted in 3 overlapping subsets of questions that
were considered valid representations of the forces
measured (vertical peak, vertical impulse, and propulsion
peak). Each reduced model fit the data as well as
the full model.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The VAS
questionnaire was repeatable and valid for use in
assessing the degree of mild to moderate lameness
in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1634–1643)
Objective—To document blood nitric oxide concentrations
in the portal vein and systemic circulation in a rat
model of acute portal hypertension and compare values
with a control group and a sham surgical group.
Procedure—Following induction of anesthesia,
catheters were placed surgically in the carotid artery,
jugular, and portal veins of group 2 and 3 rats and in
the carotid artery and jugular vein of group 1 rats.
Baseline heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature,
and vascular pressure measurements were
obtained, and blood was drawn from all catheters for
baseline nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. Acute portal
hypertension was induced in the group 3 rats by tying
a partially occluding suture around the portal vein and
a 22-gauge catheter. The catheter was then removed,
resulting in a repeatable degree of portal vein impingement.
After catheter placement, all variables were
remeasured at 15-minute intervals for 3 hours.
Results—Blood nitric oxide concentrations were greater
in all vessels tested in group 3 than in group 2 rats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute portal
hypertension in this experimental model results in
increased concentrations of NO in the systemic and
portal circulation. On the basis of information in the
rat, it is possible that increased NO concentrations
may develop in dogs following surgical treatment of
congenital portosystemic shunts if acute life-threatening
portal hypertension develops. Increased NO
concentrations may contribute to the shock syndrome
that develops in these dogs. (Am J Vet Res