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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of vaccination against FIV on results of serologic assays for FIV infection.

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—26 specific-pathogen-free cats, 102 laboratory- reared cats (42 unvaccinated and uninfected, 41 vaccinated and uninfected, and 19 infected with FIV), and 22 client-owned cats infected with FIV.

Procedure—To determine the onset and duration of anti-FIV antibody production in cats following vaccination with a whole-virus vaccine, serum was obtained from the 26 specific-pathogen-free cats prior to vaccination and weekly for 10 weeks, then monthly for 52 weeks, after vaccination; serum was tested for anti-FIV antibodies with lateral flow and microwell plate ELISAs. To determine the diagnostic performance of serologic assays for FIV infection, plasma from uninfected, unvaccinated cats; uninfected, vaccinated cats; and FIV-infected cats was tested for FIV antibodies with the 2 ELISAs, a western blot assay, and an immunofluorescence antibody assay and for FIV antigen with an ELISA.

Results—Anti-FIV antibodies were detected in all 26 vaccinated cats 1 year after vaccination. Sensitivity of the antibody assays for FIV infection was high (98% to 100%). Specificity was high in unvaccinated cats (90% to 100%) but poor in vaccinated cats (0% to 54%). None of the vaccinated or infected cats had detectable FIV antigen in plasma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that vaccination against FIV causes false-positive results for at least 1 year with currently available serologic assays for FIV infection. Negative FIV antibody assay results are highly reliable for detection of uninfected cats, but positive results should be interpreted with caution. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1558–1561)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and overall diagnostic accuracy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays offered by commercial diagnostic laboratories for diagnosis of FIV infection in cats.

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—124 cats.

Procedure—Blood was collected from cats that were neither infected with nor vaccinated against FIV, uninfected cats that were vaccinated with a licensed FIV vaccine, and cats experimentally and naturally infected with FIV representing subtypes A, B, and C. Coded blood samples were submitted to 3 laboratories in the United States and Canada offering PCR assays for diagnosis of FIV infection to veterinary practitioners. All laboratories tested fresh blood samples, and 1 laboratory also tested samples submitted as dried blood smears. The FIV infection status in all cats was confirmed by virus isolation. Sensitivity, specificity, and correct results were calculated for each PCR assay.

Results—Sensitivity ranged from 41% to 93%. Specificity ranged from 81% to 100% in unvaccinated cats and 44% to 95% in cats vaccinated against FIV. Correct results were obtained in 58% to 90% of 124 cats tested. All tests misidentified both uninfected and infected cats. False-positive results by all laboratories were higher in cats vaccinated against FIV than in unvaccinated cats, suggesting that vaccination interferes with the performance or interpretation of PCR assays used for diagnosis of FIV infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PCR assays used for diagnosis of FIV infection presently marketed to veterinary practitioners in North America vary significantly in diagnostic accuracy and did not resolve the diagnostic dilemma resulting from vaccination of cats against FIV. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:1503–1507)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency, types, and severity of clinical signs; geographic distribution; and treatment information associated with toxicosis caused by 100% tea tree oil (TTO) in dogs and cats in the United States and Canada.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—337 dogs and 106 cats with evidence of exposure to 100% TTO.

Procedures—10-year incident data were retrieved from the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center database from January 2002 to December 2012. Only evidenced or witnessed incidents assessed as toxicosis or suspected toxicosis were included. Signalment, amount of TTO used, intention of use, and outcome information were evaluated. Severity of illness and correlations with breed, sex, age, and weight were determined.

Results—TTO was intentionally used in 395 of 443 (89%) animals. The amount used ranged from 0.1 to 85 mL. Incidents were reported from 41 states, the District of Columbia, and 4 Canadian provinces. Exposure route was cutaneous in 221 (50%) animals, cutaneous and oral in 133 (30%), and oral in 67 (15%). Clinical signs developed within 2 to 12 hours and lasted up to 72 hours. The most common signs were increased salivation or drooling, signs of CNS depression or lethargy, paresis, ataxia, and tremors. A significant association with severity of illness was found for age and weight, with higher prevalence of major illness in younger and smaller cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intentional or accidental use of 100% TTO in dogs or cats caused serious signs of CNS depression, paresis, ataxia, or tremors within hours after exposure and lasting up to 3 days. Younger cats and those with lighter body weight were at greater risk of developing major illness.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs and outcomes of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) toxicosis in dogs; to assess effects of amount (ie, dose) and formulation (immediate or extended release) of ingested MPH on onset, duration, and severity of clinical signs; and to describe management of MPH intoxication.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—128 dogs with MPH toxicosis or exposure.

Procedures—Data from an Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) database from November 1, 2001, to November 30, 2008, were reviewed. Records of dogs were searched for APCC classifications of confirmed (n = 71) or suspected (39) MPH toxicosis; dogs (18) that ingested MPH but did not develop clinical signs of toxicosis were also included. Signalment, dose, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome were evaluated.

Results—Clinical signs of toxicosis were reported in 107 of 128 (84%) dogs that ingested MPH; these included hyperactivity in 42 (33%), tachycardia in 27 (21%), vomiting in 19 (15%), agitation in 16 (13%), and hyperthermia in 13 (10%). Doses ranged from 0.36 mg/kg (0.164 mg/lb) to 117.0 mg/kg (53.18 mg/lb). Severity of clinical signs was not strongly associated with dose. More severe and prolonged clinical signs were associated with ingestion of extended-release formulations of MPH; 3 dogs that consumed these formulations (doses, 10.2 mg/kg [4.64 mg/lb], 15.4 mg/kg [700 mg/lb], and 31.1 mg/kg [14.14 mg/lb]) died. Favorable outcomes were reported for most (31/34 [91%]) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ingestion of even small amounts of MPH can cause severe clinical signs in dogs. Monitoring and supportive care are recommended regardless of dose.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of FeLV infection and serum antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in unowned free-roaming cats.

Design—Cross-sectional serologic survey.

Animals—733 unowned free-roaming cats in Raleigh, NC, and 1,143 unowned free-roaming cats in Gainesville, Fla.

Results—In Raleigh, overall prevalence of FeLV infection was 5.3%, and overall seroprevalence for FIV was 2.3%. In Gainesville, overall prevalence of FeLV infection was 3.7%, and overall seroprevalence for FIV was 4.3%. Overall, FeLV prevalence was 4.3%, and seroprevalence for FIV was 3.5%. Prevalence of FeLV infection was not significantly different between males (4.9%) and females (3.8%), although seroprevalence for FIV was significantly higher in male cats (6.3%) than in female cats (1.5%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prevalence of FeLV infection and seroprevalence for FIV in unowned free-roaming cats in Raleigh and Gainesville are similar to prevalence rates reported for owned cats in the United States. Male cats are at increased risk for exposure to FIV, compared with female cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:620–622)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire that is repeatable and valid for use in assessing pain and lameness in dogs.

Sample Population—48 client-owned dogs with mild to moderate lameness.

Procedure—The dogs were from 3 studies conducted during a 3-year period. Of the 48 dogs, 19 were used in repeatability assessment, 48 were used in principal component analysis, and 44 were used in model selection procedures and validity testing. A test-retest measure of repeatability was conducted on dogs with a change of < 10% in vertical peak force. A force platform was used as the criterion-referenced standard for detecting lameness. Principal component analysis was used to describe dimensionality of the data. Repeatable questions were used as explanatory variables in multiple regression models to predict force plate measurements. Peak vertical, craniocaudal, and associated impulses were the forces used to quantify lameness. The regression models were used to test the criterion validity of the questionnaire.

Results—19 of 39 questions were found to be repeatable on the basis of a Spearman rank-correlation cut point of > 0.6. Model selection procedures resulted in 3 overlapping subsets of questions that were considered valid representations of the forces measured (vertical peak, vertical impulse, and propulsion peak). Each reduced model fit the data as well as the full model.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The VAS questionnaire was repeatable and valid for use in assessing the degree of mild to moderate lameness in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1634–1643)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the percentage of pet cats still wearing collars and having functional microchips 6 months after application.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—538 client-owned cats.

Procedures—Cats were randomly assigned to wear 1 of 3 types of collars: plastic buckle, breakaway plastic buckle safety, and elastic stretch safety. Each cat was fitted with the assigned collar, and a microchip was inserted SC between the scapulae. Owners completed questionnaires about their experiences and expectations of collars at enrollment and at the conclusion of the study.

Results—391 of the 538 (72.7%) cats successfully wore their collars for the entire 6-month study period. Owners' initial expectations of the cats' tolerance of the collar and the number of times the collar was reapplied on the cats' necks were the most important factors predicting success. Type of collar likely influenced how often collars needed to be reapplied. Eighteen (3.3%) cats caught a forelimb in their collar or caught their collar on an object or in their mouth. Of the 478 microchips that were scanned at the conclusion of the study, 477 (99.8%) were functional.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most cats successfully wore their collars. Because even house cats can become lost, veterinarians should recommend that all cats wear identification collars since they are the most obvious means of identifying an owned pet. For some cats, collars may frequently come off and become lost; therefore, microchips are an important form of backup identification. Owners should select a collar that their cat will tolerate and should check it often to ensure a proper fit.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To document blood nitric oxide concentrations in the portal vein and systemic circulation in a rat model of acute portal hypertension and compare values with a control group and a sham surgical group.

Animals—30 rats; 10 controls (group 1), 10 sham surgical (group 2), and 10 rats with surgically induced acute portal hypertension (group 3).

Procedure—Following induction of anesthesia, catheters were placed surgically in the carotid artery, jugular, and portal veins of group 2 and 3 rats and in the carotid artery and jugular vein of group 1 rats. Baseline heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, and vascular pressure measurements were obtained, and blood was drawn from all catheters for baseline nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. Acute portal hypertension was induced in the group 3 rats by tying a partially occluding suture around the portal vein and a 22-gauge catheter. The catheter was then removed, resulting in a repeatable degree of portal vein impingement. After catheter placement, all variables were remeasured at 15-minute intervals for 3 hours.

Results—Blood nitric oxide concentrations were greater in all vessels tested in group 3 than in group 2 rats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute portal hypertension in this experimental model results in increased concentrations of NO in the systemic and portal circulation. On the basis of information in the rat, it is possible that increased NO concentrations may develop in dogs following surgical treatment of congenital portosystemic shunts if acute life-threatening portal hypertension develops. Increased NO concentrations may contribute to the shock syndrome that develops in these dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1173–1177)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research