OBJECTIVE To compare the doses of propofol required to induce general anesthesia in dogs premedicated with acepromazine maleate or trazodone hydrochloride and compare the effects of these premedicants on cardiovascular variables in dogs anesthetized for orthopedic surgery.
PROCEDURES 15 dogs received acepromazine (0.01 to 0.03 mg/kg [0.005 to 0.014 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before anesthetic induction and 15 received trazodone (5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb] for patients > 10 kg or 7 mg/kg [3.18 mg/lb] for patients ≤ 10 kg, PO) 2 hours before induction. Both groups received morphine sulfate (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IM) 30 minutes before induction. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4 to 6 mg/kg [1.82 to 2.73 mg/lb], IV, to effect) and maintained with isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen. Bupivacaine (0.5 mg/kg [0.227 mg/lb]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb]) were administered epidurally. Dogs underwent tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (n = 22) or tibial tuberosity advancement (8) and were monitored throughout anesthesia. Propofol induction doses and cardiovascular variables (heart rate and systemic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures) were compared between groups.
RESULTS The mean dose of propofol required for anesthetic induction and all cardiovascular variables evaluated did not differ between groups. Intraoperative hypotension developed in 6 and 5 dogs of the acepromazine and trazodone groups, respectively; bradycardia requiring intervention developed in 3 dogs/group. One dog that received trazodone had priapism 24 hours later and was treated successfully. No other adverse effects were reported.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE At the described dosages, cardiovascular effects of trazodone were similar to those of acepromazine in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for orthopedic surgery.
Objective—To evaluate associations between retention
of dogs in their adoptive homes and attendance
at puppy socialization classes and other factors.
Animals—248 adult dogs that were adopted as puppies
from a humane society.
Procedure—Owners completed questionnaires
regarding demographics, retention of the dogs in the
homes, and the dogs' early learning events.
Results—Higher retention in the homes was reported
for dogs that participated in humane society puppy
socialization classes, were female, wore headcollars
as puppies, were handled frequently as puppies,
were more responsive to commands, slept on or near
the owner's bed, or lived in homes without young children.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
several practices that veterinarians may recommend
to enhance the likelihood that puppies will
remain in their first homes, such as enrolling 7- to 12-week-old puppies in early learning and socialization
classes. The lower rate of retention of dogs in homes
with children emphasizes the importance of helping
owners develop realistic expectations, knowledge,
and effective tools to manage interactions between
their children and dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;