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Objective

To report clinical findings for New World camelids with uterine torsion and to compare results of 3 methods of correction.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

11 llamas and 3 alpacas with 20 uterine torsions.

Procedure

Information concerning history, clinical signs, management, and postpartum complications was retrieved from medical records. Information concerning subsequent reproductive performance was obtained by telephone interview of owners.

Results

Uterine torsion was corrected by celiotomy (n = 7), transvaginal manipulation (5), or rolling the dam (8). Direction of 19 of 20 torsions was clockwise when viewed from the rear. Retention of fetal membranes was reported for 5 camelids that underwent celiotomy, but was not reported in camelids after nonsurgical correction. The uterus prolapsed in 1 llama that underwent celiotomy and in another that underwent the rolling technique. Although 2 camelids that underwent celiotomy subsequently failed to conceive, all camelids treated by nonsurgical techniques conceived.

Clinical Implications

Uterine torsion in camelids may be diagnosed by methods similar to those used in cattle. Surgical and nonsurgical methods can be used to correct torsion, and postpartum complications are rare when torsion is corrected by a nonsurgical method. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:600–602)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine typical clinical and radiographic findings in a group of New World camelids with tooth root abscesses and to determine outcome after medical and surgical treatment.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

23 llamas and alpacas with radiographic and clinical evidence of tooth root abscesses.

Procedure

Disease history, signalment, physical and radiographic examination findings, bacteriologic culture results, treatment, and short-term and long-term outcome were retrieved from the medical records.

Results

Local swelling was the most common clinical abnormality in camelids with tooth root abscesses. Mandibular molars were affected most commonly, and bacteriologic culture of samples from lesions often revealed facultative anaerobic bacteria. Antibiotic treatment for at least 30 days, surgical extraction of the affected tooth, and a root canal procedure were used successfully to treat tooth root abscesses.

Clinical Implications

Both surgical and medical treatment of tooth root abscesses may lead to successful resolution of clinical signs in New World camelids. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:819–822)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives—To test whether generalized Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection could be induced by intratracheal inoculation in llamas and to characterize this infection.

Animals—6 test and 3 control llamas.

Procedure—Test llamas received 1 of 3 dosages of S zooepidemicus by intratracheal injection, whereas control llamas received sterile culture medium. Physical examination variables and results of clinicopathologic analyses of blood, peritoneal fluid, and tracheal wash fluid were compared in test llamas between, before, and during the development of bacteremia and with control llamas. Bacteriologic culture was performed on all collected body fluids and tissue specimens that were collected at necropsy. Tissue specimens that were collected at necropsy were examined histologically.

Results—Infection induced fever, anorexia, and signs of depression. Five of 6 infected llamas developed specific signs of inflammation in the thorax or abdomen, bacteremia, neutrophilic leukocytosis with toxic changes and high band neutrophil cell counts, hyperfibrinogenemia, and high peritoneal fluid WBC counts and protein concentrations. On development of bacteremia, llamas had significant decreases in serum iron (from 118 ± 25 to 6 ± 4 µg/ml) and increases in serum glucose (from 131 ± 5 to 253 ± 48 mg/dl) concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceStreptococcus zooepidemicus spreads rapidly to other body compartments after intratracheal inoculation in llamas. Fever, anorexia, and signs of depression are the most consistent clinical signs, although other signs are possible. Clinicopathologic analysis of body fluids yields evidence of inflammation. Infection by S zooepidemicus can be proven by bacteriologic culture of body fluids before death or of tissue specimens after death. (Am J Vet Res 2000:61;1525–1529)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association