Objective—To compare laparoscopic skills among veterinarians before and after undertaking 1 of 2 programs of simulation training.
Sample Population—17 veterinarians at 1 institution.
Procedures—Basic skills were tested by use of the McGill inanimate system for training and evaluation of laparoscopic skills (MISTELS). Surgical performance was assessed through an objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS). Both tests were performed prior to and after a 12-session training program, consisting of MISTELS exercises (curriculum A) or a variety of exercises (curriculum B).
Results—Curriculum B led to improvement of scores obtained with both the MISTELS and the OSATS. Curriculum A did not result in higher scores obtained with the MISTELS, compared with curriculum B. Curriculum A did not lead to an improvement of scores obtained with the OSATS. Participant-perceived value of the training program was correlated positively with the improvement of scores for MISTELS suturing tasks and scores obtained with the OSATS. Time spent in clinical laparoscopic surgery and curriculum B training were both positively correlated with the post-training OSATS scores but not with post-training MISTELS scores. Conversely, simulation training time correlated with an increase in MISTELS scores but not OSATS scores.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MISTELS training resulted in significant improvement of basic laparoscopic skills but not in the assessment used for surgical performance. This may have been due to the small number of study participants, the assessment tool, or the method of training. A varied curriculum may be advantageous when training veterinarians for clinical laparoscopic practice.
Objective—To determine the effects of ketamine hydrochloride on hemodynamic and immunologic alterations associated with experimentally induced endotoxemia in dogs.
Animals—9 mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—In a crossover study, dogs were randomly allocated to receive ketamine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, followed by IV infusion at a rate of 0.12 mg/kg/h for 2.5 hours) or control solution (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, 0.25 mL, IV, followed by IV infusion at a rate of 0.5 mL/h for 2.5 hours). Onset of infusion was time 0. At 30 minutes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/kg, IV) was administered. Heart rate (HR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α activity, and a CBC were evaluated.
Results—Mean SAP was significantly reduced in dogs administered ketamine or saline solution at 2 and 2.5 hours, compared with values at time 0. However, there was no significant difference between treatments. At 1, 2, and 2.5 hours, dogs administered ketamine had a significantly lower HR than dogs administered saline solution. Although plasma TNF-α activity significantly increased, compared with values at time 0 for both groups, ketamine-treated dogs had significantly lower peak plasma TNF-α activity 1.5 hours after LPS administration. All dogs had significant leukopenia and neutropenia after LPS administration, with no differences detected between ketamine and saline solution treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine had immunomodulating effects in dogs with experimentally induced endotoxemia (namely, blunting of plasma TNF-α activity). However, it had little effect on hemodynamic stability and no effect on WBC counts.