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  • Author or Editor: Marcos Perez-Nogues x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the value of 18 F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET) for imaging the tarsus and proximal metatarsus and compare it with CT and lameness evaluation.

ANIMALS

25 horses with lameness localized to the tarsal and proximal metatarsal regions that underwent 18F-NaF PET/CT between 2016 and 2021.

METHODS

18F-NaF PET and CT images were retrospectively independently evaluated by 3 observers. Standardized uptake values (SUV) were used to characterize 18F-NaF uptake. Correlation between PET and CT findings with subjective and objective maximum (Max-D) and minimum pelvic height lameness data was estimated.

RESULTS

The inter-observer Kappa-weighted value (κ) was higher for PET (κ = 0.66) than CT (κ = 0.6). CT and PET scores were fairly correlated (R = 0.49; P < 0.05). PET SUVratio (SUV of the main lesion/SUV talus) had the highest correlation with Max-D (R = 0.71; P < .05). PET and CT scores for the plantar region were significantly higher in Quarter Horses (P < .05) and showed consistently higher correlation with objective lameness data (CT plantar grade - Max-D [R = 0.6; P < .05], PET plantar grade - Max-D [R = 0.47; P = .04]) than other regions of the distal tarsal joints. Three Warmbloods presented marked uptake at the medial cochlea of the distal tibia.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

PET had a moderate correlation with CT for assessment of tarsal lesions. The degree of PET uptake can help differentiate active versus inactive lesions. Specific location of the uptake is important in determining clinical relevance.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish the pharmacokinetics of the cyclin-dependent kinase-9 inhibitor flavopiridol in equine middle carpal joints, using an extended-release poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticle formulation.

ANIMALS

4 healthy horses without evidence of forelimb lameness.

METHODS

A 6-week longitudinal pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 2 phases (6 weeks each) in 4 healthy horses. The PLGA microparticles containing 122 μg flavopiridol in 3 mL saline were administered by intra-articular injection into 1 middle carpal joint, with empty PLGA microparticles injected into the contralateral joint as a control. Synovial fluid and plasma were collected at time points out to 6 weeks, and drug concentrations in synovial fluid and plasma were determined using validated protocols. Synovial fluid total protein and total nucleated cell count and differential, CBC, serum biochemistry, and lameness exams were performed at each of the time points.

RESULTS

Synovial fluid flavopiridol averaged 19 nM at week 1, gradually reduced to 1.4 nM by 4 weeks, and was generally below the detection limit at 5 and 6 weeks. There was no detectable flavopiridol in the plasma samples, and no adverse effects were observed at any time point.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Intra-articular injection of PLGA microparticle-encapsulated flavopiridol was well tolerated in horses, with detectable levels of flavopiridol in the synovial fluid out to 4 weeks with negligible systemic exposure. Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase-9 inhibitor with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The extended-release microparticle formulation promotes intra-articular retention of the drug and it may be an alternative to other intra-articular medications for treatment of equine joint disease.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research