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Objective—To describe the pulsed-wave Doppler tracing of the equine lateral palmar digital artery and its modification in relation to standardized changes in posture.

Animals—17 healthy Saddlebred horses.

Procedure—Pulsed-wave Doppler examinations of left and right lateral palmar digital arteries of the horses were performed. The baseline examination was performed on each forelimb while horses were standing squarely with the body weight equally distributed among the 4 limbs (BED position). For each forelimb, the examination was repeated during 3 standardized modifications of the horse's posture (non–weightbearing [NWB] position, full weight-bearing [FWB] position, and a position involving hyperextension of the distal interphalangeal joint [HE position]). In each position, mean values of systolic peak velocity, first and second diastolic peak velocity, end-diastolic velocity, mean velocity, and resistive index were calculated. Data obtained in each different posture were compared statistically.

Results—No significant differences in blood flow variables were detected between the left and right forelimbs. However, significant differences were detected in values of first diastolic velocity, second diastolic velocity, mean velocity, and resistive index between the NWB position and FWB position. Also, end-diastolic velocity in the NWB position was significantly different from that recorded in the HE position.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The pulsedwave Doppler tracing of the equine lateral palmar digital artery was modified considerably with changes in posture. This suggests that the use of a precisely standardized posture for horses is required to obtain repeatable data. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1211–1215)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To noninvasively assess the influence of ingestion of a standard meal on gallbladder volume (GBV) in healthy cats.

Animals—10 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats (4 neutered females, 5 neutered males, and 1 sexually intact male).

Procedures—Nonsedated cats were positioned in dorsal and left lateral recumbency to obtain ultrasonographic measurements of the gallbladder via the subcostal and right intercostal acoustic windows, respectively. Gallbladder volume was calculated from linear measurements by use of an ellipsoid formula (volume [mL] = length [mm] × height [mm] × width [mm] × 0.52). Measurements were recorded after food was withheld for 12 hours (0 minutes) and at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 minutes after cats were fed 50 g of a standard commercial diet (protein, 44.3%; fat, 30.3%; and carbohydrate, 15.6% [dry matter percentage]).

Results—Agreement between gallbladder linear measurements or GBV obtained from the subcostal and right intercostal windows was good. Feeding resulted in linear decreases in gallbladder linear measurements and GBV. Via the subcostal and intercostal windows, mean ± SD GBV was 2.47 ± 1.16 mL and 2.36 ± 0.96 mL, respectively, at 0 minutes and 0.88 ± 0.13 mL and 0.94 ± 0.25 mL, respectively, at 120 minutes. Gallbladder width most closely reflected postprandial modification of GBV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that ultrasonographic assessment (via the subcostal or right intercostal acoustic window) of postprandial changes in GBV can be used to evaluate gallbladder contractility in cats. These data may help identify cats with abnormal gallbladder emptying.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess the applicability of high-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography for evaluation and accurate measurement of the skin thickness of clinically normal dogs.

Animals—26 healthy dogs (12 sexually intact males, 13 sexually intact females, and 1 spayed female) of various breeds and ages.

Procedure—Ultrasonographic examination of the skin and histomorphometric analysis of skin biopsy specimens obtained from the same site were performed. A 13-MHz linear-array transducer was used to obtain a series of ultrasonographic images of the skin in the flank region; images were analyzed and measured by use of imaging software. Cutaneous biopsy specimens were placed in fixative and then stained with H&E and Masson trichrome stains. Histomorphometric analysis was performed by use of an image analyzer. Thickness of the epidermis and dermis of each specimen was evaluated by use of a semiautomatic procedure of quantification. Data obtained from ultrasonographic and histologic measurements were compared by use of the Pearson correlation test.

Results—The ultrasonographic pattern of canine skin was consistently characterized by 3 distinct, defined echogenic layers corresponding to the epidermal entry echo, epidermis and dermis, and subcutaneous tissues. A positive correlation was found between ultrasonographic and histologic measurements of skin thickness.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Comparison between ultrasonographic and histologic appearance of the skin revealed that layering of canine skin (ie, epidermis and dermis) and the subcutaneous tissues may be recognized and measured by use of high-frequency ultrasonography. Thus, diagnostic ultrasonography may be a useful tool for the noninvasive evaluation of cutaneous disorders in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1625–1630)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

An 8-month-old female Beagle was evaluated for diarrhea, dysorexia, asthenia, and signs of depression that had started during a 10-day stay in a kennel. No vomiting was reported. Physical examination revealed that the dog appeared depressed and had a rectal temperature of 39.2°C (102.6°F). On abdominal palpation, a painful apple-size mass was appreciable in the middle portion of the abdomen. On CBC, neutrophilia (18.8 × 103 neutrophils/PL; reference range, 3 to 12 × 103 neutrophils/PL) was found. A low serum albumin concentration (2.49 g/dL; reference range, 2.8 to 3.7 g/dL) was detected on serum biochemical

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess the usefulness of high-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography for evaluation of changes of skin thickness in relation to hydration status and fluid distribution at various cutaneous sites in dogs.

Animals—10 clinically normal adult dogs (6 males and 4 females) of various breeds.

Procedures—Ultrasonographic examination of the skin was performed before and after hydration via IV administration of an isotonic crystalloid solution (30 mL/kg/h for 30 minutes). A 13-MHz linear-array transducer was used to obtain series of ultrasonographic images at 4 different cutaneous sites (the frontal, sacral, flank, and metatarsal regions). Weight and various clinicopathologic variables (PCV; serum osmolality; and serum total protein, albumin, and sodium concentrations) were determined before and after the infusion. These variables and ultrasonographic measurements of skin thickness before and after hydration were compared.

Results—Among the 10 dogs, mean preinfusion skin thickness ranged from 2,211 μm (metatarsal region) to 3,249 μm (sacral region). Compared with preinfusion values, weight was significantly increased, whereas PCV; serum osmolality; and serum total protein, albumin, and sodium concentrations were significantly decreased after infusion. After infusion, dermal echogenicity decreased and skin thickness increased significantly by 21%, 14%, 15%, and 13% in the frontal, sacral, flank, and metatarsal regions, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cutaneous site and hydration were correlated with cutaneous characteristics and skin thickness determined by use of high-frequency ultrasonography in dogs. Thus, diagnostic ultrasonography may be a useful tool for the noninvasive evaluation of skin hydration in healthy dogs and in dogs with skin edema.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To prospectively evaluate the clinical and prognostic importance of duodenal endoscopic and histologic findings, including duodenal mucosal counts of forkhead box P3-positive regulatory T cells (Foxp3+ Tregs), in dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy (IRE).


57 client-owned dogs with IRE.


The canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) was used to assess each dog when IRE was diagnosed (T0) and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Dogs were grouped on the basis of clinical response (responder group vs nonresponder group) and 12-month long-term outcome (responded to treatment and did not relapse [good outcome group] vs did not respond to treatment or had relapsed [bad outcome group]). At T0, dogs underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy, with results for variables of duodenal endoscopic and histologic evaluations scored and compared across groups.


At T0, the overall median CCECAI score was 7; CCECAI score was not associated with clinical response or relapse. Dogs had significantly greater odds of being in the bad outcome group (vs the good outcome group) if they had a histologic score of 3 (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.09 to 11.3). No differences in the counts of Foxp3+ Tregs were detected between groups.


In dogs with IRE, results indicated that evaluation of Foxp3+ Tregs did not have prognostic value, whereas a duodenal histologic score of 3 could be a negative prognostic factor for response and relapse, and higher severity scores for intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes and plasma cells in duodenal biopsy samples may be negatively associated with response.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of budesonide in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Animals—11 dogs (mean ± SD age, 5.7 ± 3.9 years; various breeds and body weights) with moderate or severe IBD.

Procedures—Each dog received a controlled-release formulation of budesonide (3 mg/m2, PO, q 24 h) for 30 days (first day of administration was day 1). The concentration of budesonide and its metabolite (16-α-hydroxyprednisolone) was measured via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in plasma and urine samples obtained on days 1 and 8 of treatment. On those days, plasma samples were obtained before the daily budesonide administration and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 7 hours after drug administration, whereas urine samples were obtained after collection of the last blood sample. A clinical evaluation was performed on the dogs before onset of drug administration and on days 20 and 30 after start of drug administration.

Results—The highest plasma concentration of budesonide and 16-α-hydroxyprednisolone on day 1 was detected at 1 hour and at 2 hours after drug administration, respectively. After standardization on the basis of specific gravity, the ratio between urinary concentrations of budesonide and 16-α-hydroxyprednisolone was 0.006 and 0.012 on days 1 and 8, respectively. The clinical response was adequate in 8 of 11 dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Budesonide was rapidly absorbed and metabolized in dogs with IBD. The drug gradually accumulated, and there was an adequate therapeutic response and no adverse effects.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research