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  • Author or Editor: Marcelo A. Gómez x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate nonselective computed tomographic (CT) venography for evaluating the cervical internal vertebral venous plexus (IVVP), define the diameter and area dimensions of the IVVP, and determine the relationship between dimensions of the cervical IVVP and other vertebral components in medium-sized dogs.

Animals—6 healthy dogs that weighed 18 to 27 kg.

Procedure—Helical CT scans were performed from C1 to C7 before and after IV injection of contrast medium (480 mg of iodine/kg) and a continuous infusion (240 mg of iodine/kg). Image data were transferred to a CT workstation, and measurements were performed on displayed transverse images. Diameter and area measurements of the vertebral canal, dural sac, IVVP, and vertebral body were obtained at C3 to C7.

Results—Opacification of vertebral venous structures was achieved in all dogs with no adverse reactions. Sagittal diameters of the IVVP for C3 to C7 ranged from 0.6 to 3.2 mm. Transverse diameters ranged from 2.32 to 5.74 mm. The IVVP area represented 12.4% of the mean vertebral canal transverse area and 30.61% of the mean vertebral epidural space area. Area measurements of the IVVP were significantly correlated with vertebral canal area and dural sac area.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that nonselective CT venography is a safe, sensitive method for performing morphometric assessments of the cervical IVVP in dogs. Findings support the theory that there may be a physiologic or developmental relationship between cervical vertebral canal components. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2039–2045)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research