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Case Description—2 dogs and 1 cat underwent endoscopic-assisted intracranial procedures for lesion biopsy (1 dog and 1 cat) and definitive lesion removal (1 dog).

Clinical Findings—1 cat was treated for an interhemispheric, pedunculated meningioma with an associated arachnoid cyst. Two dogs underwent endoscopic surgery procedures; 1 dog underwent removal of an intranasal dermoid cyst with extension to the olfactory bulb dura, and the other underwent lesion biopsy for histologic confirmation of suspected intracranial granular cell tumor.

Treatment and Outcome—Minimally invasive intracranial procedures were achieved by use of an endoscope to aid in lesion biopsy in a dog and a cat with neoplasia and complete lesion removal in 1 dog with a dermoid cyst. No obvious morbidity from the use of the endoscope was observed. Rapid recovery from surgery was seen in all 3 animals, and hospitalization times were a few days.

Clinical Relevance—In human and veterinary neurosurgery, minimally invasive surgical approaches for diagnosis and treatment are gaining in popularity. Minimally invasive techniques are used to achieve a decrease in surgical time, minimize brain exposure, and decrease postoperative recovery times. Keyhole and minimally invasive approaches require some degree of dexterity and knowledge of where the endoscope is in a 3-dimensional orientation and its relationship to the topography of an anatomic region. Anticipation of complications should allow for potential conversion to an open craniotomy. Use of the endoscope in minimally invasive procedures is associated with a steep learning curve to understand orientation, topography, and normal versus abnormal anatomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 10-year-old 9.1-kg (20-lb) neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of an acute onset of lethargy, vomiting, anorexia, and paradoxical breathing a few hours prior to hospital admission. Physical examination revealed mild tachypnea (40 breaths/min), paradoxical breathing, and absence of lung sounds ventrally on the right side of the thorax. Anemia (Hct, 17%; reference range, 30% to 45%), thrombocytopenia (140,000 platelets/μL; reference range, 300,000 to 700,000 platelets/μL), and a stress leukogram (neutrophil count, 19,500 neutrophils/μL; reference range, 2,500 to 12,500 neutrophils/μL; lymphocyte count, 1,100 lymphocytes/μL; reference range, 1,700 to 7,000 lymphocytes/μL) were detected on CBC. Mild hypoproteinemia

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether an association exists between oral bacterial contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and positive PCR assay results for the detection of Mycoplasma spp in BALF samples of dogs with lower respiratory tract (LRT; portion from the trachea to the lungs) disease.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—121 dogs with LRT disease.

Procedures—Medical records from January 2005 to April 2012 were reviewed. Dogs with LRT disease that had BALF samples evaluated by use of Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay, bacterial culture, and cytologic examination were included. Information on signalment, final diagnoses, and BALF testing results was extracted.

Results—83 (68.6%) dogs had BALF samples with negative PCR assay results for Mycoplasma spp, and 38 (31.4%) had positive results. The BALF samples with cytologic evidence of oral bacterial contamination were 5.1 times as likely to have positive Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results as were noncontaminated samples. Compared with hound or herding dogs, other breeds were 13.6 times as likely to have positive PCR assay results. Dogs with bronchitis were less likely than dogs with other LRT diseases to have positive Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results. No significant association was found between Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results and bacterial culture results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with LRT disease, Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results for BALF samples should be interpreted in terms of possible oral bacterial contamination. Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay of BALF samples from herding dogs, hound dogs, and dogs with bronchitis may be less rewarding than for other dogs with LRT disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the incidence of bacteremia, as detected by routine methods for bacterial culture of blood samples, following routine endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and duodenum in healthy research dogs and to determine whether treatment with omeprazole administration affected the incidence of bacteremia.

Animals—8 healthy purpose-bred research dogs.

Procedures—All dogs underwent gastroduodenoscopy with biopsy at 4 points: twice prior to treatment with omeprazole, once following 15 days of omeprazole treatment (20 mg, PO, q 12 h), and once 14 days after treatment ceased. Dogs had a mean ± SD body weight of 18.6 ± 2.0 kg. Blood samples were aseptically obtained at 3 points during each procedure (before, immediately following, and 24 hours after endoscopy), and routine aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture of blood was performed.

Results—96 cultures were attempted for each culture method, yielding positive results of aerobic culture for 2 dogs at separate time points and no positive results of anaerobic culture.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Routine gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy in healthy dogs did not result in a detectable bacteremia in most dogs. Treatment with the gastric acid–suppressing medication omeprazole did not affect the incidence of bacteremia as detected via standard techniques.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research