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Abstract

Objective—To study the hemodynamic effects of marbofloxacin (MBF) in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.

Animals—6 healthy 8-month-old Beagles.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced with sodium thiopental and maintained with isoflurane. Cardiovascular variables were monitored throughout anesthesia. Marbofloxacin was administered by an IV bolus at 2 mg/kg, followed 10 minutes later by an infusion at a rate of 40 mg/kg/h for 30 minutes (total dose, 20 mg/kg). Plasma MBF concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—The mean peak concentration during MBF infusion was 34.2 ± 6.4 µg/mL. The IV administration of the MBF bolus did not alter any cardiovascular variable in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Significant changes were found during infusion when a cumulative dose of 12 mg/kg had been given. The maximal decreases observed at the end of the infusion were 16% in heart rate, 26% in systolic left ventricular pressure, 33% in systolic aortic pressure, 38% in diastolic aortic pressure, 29% in cardiac output, and 12% in QT interval. All dogs recovered rapidly from anesthesia at the end of the experiment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MBF may safely be used at 2 mg/kg IV in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs, and significant adverse cardiovascular effects are found only when 6 to 8 times the recommended dose is given. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2090–2094)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate, by use of population pharmacokinetics, the disposition of marbofloxacin in the aqueous humor after IV administration in dogs and identify its potential usefulness in the prophylaxis and treatment of intraocular infection.

Animals—63 dogs.

Methods—Dogs received a single dose of marbofloxacin (2 mg · kg–1, IV) at various time intervals before cataract surgery. Aqueous humor and blood samples were collected at the beginning of surgery. Marbofloxacin concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed with a nonlinear mixed-effect model and, by use of population pharmacokinetic parameters, the time course of aqueous humor concentration was simulated for single doses of 3, 4, and 5.5 mg · kg–1IV. Pharmacodynamic surrogate markers and measured aqueous humor concentrations were used to predict in vivo antimicrobial activity.

Results—A maximum marbofloxacin concentration of 0.41 ± 0.17 µg·mL–1 was reached in the aqueous humor 3.5 hours after IV administration. In the postdistributive phase, marbofloxacin disappeared from aqueous humor with a half-life of 780 minutes. The percentage penetration into the aqueous humor was 38%. Predictors of antimicrobial effects of marbofloxacin (2 mg · kg–1, IV) indicated that growth of the enterobacteriaceae and certain staphylococcal species would be inhibited in the aqueous humor. Marbofloxacin administered IV at a dose of 5.5 mg · kg–1 would be predicted to inhibit growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and all strains of staphylococci but would not eradicate streptococcal infections.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Marbofloxacin administered IV can penetrate the aqueous humor of canine eyes and may be suitable for prophylaxis or treatment of certain anterior chamber infections. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:889–893)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare penetration of IV administered marbofloxacin in intraocular fluids of healthy and inflamed eyes in rabbits with endotoxin-induced endophthalmitis.

Animals—35 pigmented rabbits.

Procedures—Endophthalmitis was induced in the right eye via intravitreal administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin. The left eye was a control eye. After 24 hours, a single dose of marbofloxacin (4 mg/kg, IV) was administered. Groups of rabbits (n = 5/group) were euthanized 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 18 hours later, and blood and ocular fluids were collected. Marbofloxacin concentrations were determined via reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic analysis of the data was performed with a mono-compartmental model.

Results—Mean area under the aqueous concentration-time curve was significantly lower in control eyes (1.64 ± 0.07 μg•h/mL) than in inflamed eyes (3.31 ± 0.11 μg•h/mL). Similarly, drug penetration into aqueous humor was 33% and 65% for control eyes and inflamed eyes, respectively. Mean area under the vitreous humor concentration-time curve for control eyes(1.75 ± 0.05 μg•h/mL) was significantly less than for inflamed eyes (2.39 ± 0.16 μg•h/mL). In the vitreous humor, corresponding penetrations were 34% and 47%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Penetration of marbofloxacin into the aqueous and vitreous humor after IV administration was significantly enhanced by intraocular inflammation, suggesting a role for this antimicrobial in the prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis caused by susceptible pathogens.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—–To compare transfixation and standard full-limb casts for prevention of in vitro displacement of a mid-diaphyseal third metacarpal osteotomy site in horses.

Sample Population—6 forelimbs from 6 horses euthanatized for reasons not related to the musculoskeletal system.

Procedure—A 30° osteotomy was performed in the mid-diaphysis of the third metacarpal bone. Two 4.5-mm cortical bone screws were placed across the osteotomy site to maintain alignment during casting. Two 6.35-mm Steinmann pins were placed from a lateral-to-medial direction in the distal aspect of the radius. A full-limb cast that incorporated the pins was applied. An extensometer was positioned in the osteotomy site through a window placed in the dorsal aspect of the cast, and after removal of the screws, displacement was recorded while the limb was axially loaded to 5,340 N (1,200 lb). Pins were removed, and the standard full-limb cast was tested in a similar fashion.

Results—The transfixation cast significantly reduced displacement across the osteotomy site at 445 N (100 lb), 1,112 N (250 lb), 2,224 N (500 lb), and 4,448 N (1,000 lb), compared with the standard cast.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A full-limb transfixation cast provides significantly greater resistance than a standard full-limb cast against axial collapse of a mid-diaphyseal third metacarpal osteotomy site when the bone is placed under axial compression. Placement of full-limb transfixation casts should be considered for the management of unstable fractures of the third metacarpal bone in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1633–1635)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research