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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diagnostic utility of ECGs acquired with a smartphone-based device, compared with reference 6-lead ECGs, for identification of heart rate and rhythm in dogs and cats.

DESIGN Prospective study.

ANIMALS 51 client-owned dogs and 27 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES Patients examined by a small animal referral cardiology service between April 2012 and January 2013 were enrolled consecutively. In each patient, a 30-second ECG was simultaneously acquired with a smartphone-based device (a bipolar, single-lead recorder coupled to a smartphone with an ECG application) and a standard 6-lead ECG machine. Recordings were evaluated by 3 board-certified cardiologists, and intra- and interobserver agreement were evaluated for both rhythm diagnosis and QRS polarity identification.

RESULTS Values for instantaneous and mean heart rates for the smartphone-acquired and reference ECGs were within 1 beat of each other when mean heart rates were calculated. Intraobserver agreement for rhythm assessment was very high, with maximum disagreement for any observer for only 2 of 51 dogs and only 4 of 27 cats. There was minimal disagreement in the polarity of depolarization between the smartphone-acquired and reference ECGs in dogs but frequent disagreement in cats. Interobserver agreement for smartphone-acquired ECGs was similar to that for reference ECGs. with all 3 observers agreeing on the rhythm analysis and minimal disagreement on polarity.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that ECGs acquired with the smartphone-based device accurately identified heart rate and rhythm in dogs and cats. Thus, the device may allow veterinarians to evaluate and manage cardiac arrhythmias relatively inexpensively at the cage side and could also allow clinicians to rapidly share information via email for further consultation, potentially enhancing patient care.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether ventricular late potentials, detected by means of signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG), were associated with sudden death in Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy.

Design

Case series.

Animals

39 Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy.

Procedure

Cardiomyopathy was diagnosed by means of serial echocardiography and ambulatory electrocardiography; SAECG was performed 1 or more times for each dog.

Results

12 dogs died suddenly; the other 27 died after developing overt clinical signs of congestive heart failure. Results of SAECG were associated with outcome, and dogs in which ventricular late potentials were detected were more likely to die suddenly. However, 5 dogs for which results of SAECG were normal (n = 2) or equivocal (3) also died suddenly.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that SAECG may be useful in predicting whether Doberman Pinschers with occult cardiomyopathy, confirmed on the basis of results of echocardiography, are at risk of dying suddenly. However, the possibility of sudden death cannot be ruled out simply because results of SAECG are normal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:235-239)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether ventricular late potentials (LP) identified by time-domain analysis (TDA) of the signal-averaged ECG could be identified by three-dimensional frequency-domain analysis (FDA).

Animals

11 dogs (9 of which subsequently died suddenly) with ventricular tachyarrhythmias (10 with ventricular tachycardia) and abnormal TDA of the signal-averaged ECG.

Procedure

Signal-averaged ECG that were abnormal when analyzed in the time domain subsequently were processed further in the frequency domain. Correlation ratios were calculated, and spectro-temporal maps were plotted, which were then compared with control data.

Results

Three-dimensional FDA did not detect LP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

LP may be detectable by TDA of the signal-averaged ECG and may be a specific marker for VT and sudden death in some dogs. However, FDA by use of the method applied in this study is invalid. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60: 396-401)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine electrocardiographic parameters in healthy llamas and alpacas.

Animals—23 llamas and 12 alpacas.

Procedure—Electrocardiography was performed in nonsedated standing llamas and alpacas by use of multiple simultaneous lead recording (bipolar limb, unipolar augmented limb, and unipolar precordial leads).

Results—Common features of ECGs of llamas and alpacas included low voltage of QRS complexes, variable morphology of QRS complexes among camelids, and mean depolarization vectors (mean electrical axes) that were directed dorsocranially and to the right. Durations of the QT interval and ST segment were negatively correlated with heart rate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ECGs of acceptable quality can be consistently recorded in nonsedated standing llamas and alpacas. Features of ECGs in llamas and alpacas are similar to those of other ruminants. Changes in the morphology of the QRS complexes and mean electrical axis are unlikely to be sensitive indicators of ventricular enlargement in llamas and alpacas. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1719–1723)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate whether administering a tart cherry juice blend (TCJB) prior to exercise would reduce skeletal and cardiac muscle damage by decreasing the inflammatory and oxidative stress response to exercise in horses.

Animals—6 horses.

Procedures—Horses were randomly allocated into 2 groups in a crossover study with a 2-week washout period and orally administered either TCJB or a placebo solution (1.42 L, twice daily) in a double-masked protocol for 2 weeks prior to a stepwise incremental exercise protocol. Horses were tested for serum activities of creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; an indicator of oxidative stress), and serum amyloid A (SAA; an indicator of inflammation). To ensure that treatment would not result in positive results of an equine drug-screening protocol, serum samples obtained from each horse prior to and after 2 weeks of administration of TCJB or the placebo solution were tested.

Results—All horses had negative results of drug screening at both sample times. The exercise protocol resulted in a significant increase in TBARS concentration, SAA concentration, and serum AST activity in all horses. Administration of TCJB or placebo solution was not associated with an effect on malondialdehyde or SAA concentrations. However, administration of TCJB was associated with less serum activity of AST, compared with administration of placebo solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of TCJB may diminish muscle damage induced by exercise.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research