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Abstract

Objective—To compare the values of the urodynamic parameters of the lower portion of the urinary tract and vaginourethral measurements obtained during the phases of the estrous cycle in dogs and determine possible functional or anatomic modifications of the lower portion of the urinary tract associated with those phases.

Animals—7 adult female Beagles.

Procedure—Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed in each dog during proestrus; estrus; early, mid, and late diestrus; and early and late anestrus. The maximum urethral pressure (MUP), maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and anatomic profile lengths (UFPL and UAPL, respectively), integrated pressure, threshold pressure, threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and vaginal length and width were measured.

Results—For all measurements, significant interindividual variation was detected. Integrated and threshold pressures, APL, and each morphometric value significantly increased from late anestrus to proestrus. Compared with other phases, MUP, MUCP, and integrated pressure values were significantly lower in estrus and early diestrus; UAPL and UFPL values were significantly lower in late diestrus. At each cycle phase in old dogs, MUP, MUCP, threshold pressure, and vaginal length and width were significantly lower (except in proestrus for vaginal measurements) and threshold volume and compliance values were significantly higher, compared with middle-aged dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Urodynamic and morphometric measurements of the lower portion of the urogenital tract are affected by the changes in hormonal balance that occur during the estrous cycle. In sexually intact female dogs, estrous phase determination is important for the interpretation of urodynamic data. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1075–1083)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To compare retrograde filling cystometry at infusion rates of 5, 10, and 20 mL/min with diuresis cystometry for determination of an appropriate infusion rate and to confirm the reproducibility of measurements obtained by urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) and cystometry in female Beagles.

Animals—6 adult female Beagles.

Procedure—Successive UPP and cystometry were performed by use of a water perfusion catheter on dogs anesthetized with propofol. Dogs randomly underwent each of the following at 1-week intervals: retrograde filling cystometry at 5, 10, and 20 mL/min, and diuresis cystometry. The maximum urethral pressure and closure pressure, functional and anatomic profile lengths, threshold pressure, threshold volume, and compliance were measured.

Results—For each UPP variable, significant differences were found among dogs, but no significant differences were found in intra- or interstudy measurements for individual dogs. For retrograde filling cystometry, threshold pressure was not significantly different between a 5 and 10 mL/min infusion rate. Threshold pressure was significantly higher during retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min, compared with 5 and 10 mL/min, and was associated with bladder wall damages. Threshold pressure was significantly lower during diuresis cystometry, compared with retrograde filling cystometries. Threshold volume and compliance were not significantly different among retrograde filling cystometries but were significantly higher during diuresis cystometry.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Retrograde filling cystometry at 20 mL/min leads to unacceptable sudden increase in threshold bladder pressure. Retrograde filling cystometry at 10 mL/min can be recommended in a clinical setting, shortening the anesthesia time. However, diuresis cystometry approximates physiologic bladder filling most accurately. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:574–579)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the urodynamic and hemodynamic effects of different dosages of phenylpropanolamine and ephedrine and determine effective dosages in increasing urethral resistance in female dogs.

Animals—20 sexually intact female Beagles.

Procedure—Dogs were allocated into 4 groups and received phenylpropanolamine once, twice, or 3 times daily, or ephedrine twice daily, for 14 days. On days 0, 7, and 14, urethral pressure profiles were performed while dogs were anesthetized with propofol. Variables recorded included maximum urethral pressure, maximum urethral closure pressure, integrated pressure, functional profile length, anatomic profile length, plateau distance, distance before maximum urethral pressure, and maximum meatus pressure. Arterial and central venous pressures were measured before anesthetic induction and 10 and 35 minutes after induction.

Results—Administration of phenylpropanolamine once daily or ephedrine twice daily significantly increased maximum urethral pressure and maximum urethral closure pressure. Values for integrated pressure were significantly increased after 14 days of once-daily administration of phenylpropanolamine. Variables did not change significantly from day 7 to day 14. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures increased significantly during the treatment periods, and arterial pressure decreased during propofol infusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration of phenylpropanolamine once daily or ephedrine twice daily increased urethral resistance in clinically normal dogs and may be recommended for management of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence. Treatment efficacy may be assessed after 1 week. Dogs with concurrent cardiovascular disease should be monitored for blood pressure while receiving α-adrenergic agents because of the effects on diastolic and mean arterial pressure.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effectiveness of infusion of 1 and 2% enilconazole for treatment of nasal and sinusal aspergillosis, respectively, in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—26 client-owned dogs with aspergillosis.

Procedure—All dogs had typical clinical signs of aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or intranasal fungal plaques associated with turbinate destruction. During rhinoscopy, affected nasal cavities and frontal sinuses were debrided meticulously. Nineteen dogs (group A) were treated with 1% enilconazole by use of a modified noninvasive infusion procedure. Seven dogs (group B) were treated with 2% enilconazole via catheters that were placed via endoscopic guidance into the frontal sinuses. All dogs underwent follow-up rhinoscopy for determination of further treatment until cure was established.

Results—Age, disease duration, clinical score, and rhinoscopic score were similar for both groups before treatment. In group A, 17 of 19 dogs were cured; 9, 6, and 2 dogs were cured after 1, 2, or 3 treatments, respectively. The remaining 2 dogs were euthanatized before the end of the treatment protocol. In group B, all dogs were cured; 6 dogs and 1 dog were cured after 1 or 2 treatments, respectively. Only minor adverse effects such as nasal discharge, epistaxis, and sneezing developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After extensive rhinoscopic debridement, 1 and 2% enilconazole infused into the nasal cavities and the frontal sinuses, respectively, were effective for treatment of aspergillosis in dogs. Intrasinusal administration via endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require fewer infusions for success. Follow-up rhinoscopy is strongly advised. (J Am Med Vet Assoc 2002;221:1421–1425)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of postoperative photobiomodulation therapy and physical rehabilitation on early recovery variables for dogs after hemilaminectomy for treatment of intervertebral disk disease.

ANIMALS 32 nonambulatory client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs received standard postoperative care with photobiomodulation therapy (n = 11), physical rehabilitation with sham photobiomodulation treatment (11), or sham photobiomodulation treatment only (10) after surgery. Neurologic status at admission, diagnostic and surgical variables, duration of postoperative IV analgesic administration, and recovery grades (over 10 days after surgery) were assessed. Time to reach recovery grades B (able to support weight with some help), C (initial limb movements present), and D (ambulatory [≥ 3 steps unassisted]) was compared among groups. Factors associated with ability to ambulate on day 10 or at last follow-up were assessed.

RESULTS Time to reach recovery grades B, C, and D and duration of postoperative IV opioid administration did not differ among groups. Neurologic score at admission and surgeon experience were negatively associated with the dogs' ability to ambulate on day 10. The number of disk herniations identified by diagnostic imaging before surgery was negatively associated with ambulatory status at last follow-up. No other significant associations and no adverse treatment-related events were identified.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study found no difference in recovery-related variables among dogs that received photobiomodulation therapy, physical rehabilitation with sham photobiomodulation treatment, or sham photobiomodulation treatment only. Larger studies are needed to better evaluate effects of these postoperative treatments on dogs treated surgically for intervertebral disk disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the urodynamic and morphologic effects of the administration of estriol alone and in combination with phenylpropanolamine on the lower portion of the urogenital tract in female dogs.

Animals—3 sexually intact and 3 spayed female Beagles without urinary incontinence.

Procedure—Dogs received estriol (2 mg, PO) once daily for 7 days followed by estriol (2 mg, PO) and phenylpropanolamine (1.5 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 7 days. Urethral pressure profilometry, diuresis cystometry, and vaginourethrography were performed before treatment (day 0) and at days 7 and 14. The maximum urethral pressure (MUP) and closure pressure (MUCP), urethral functional and anatomic profile lengths, integrated pressure (IP), plateau, distance before MUP, maximum meatus pressure, threshold pressure, threshold volume, compliance, urethral length, and vaginal length and width were measured.

Results—Before treatment, no urodynamic differences were observed between the 2 groups; however, vaginal length and width were significantly shorter in spayed dogs. Compared with day 0 values, estriol treatment significantly increased MUP, MUCP, and IP values at day 7, but at day 14, this effect decreased despite phenylpropanolamine administration. No morphologic changes from baseline were detected after either treatment in any dog.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data suggest that estriol mainly acts on the urethral sphincter mechanism by increasing urethral resistance in sexually intact and spayed female dogs without urinary incontinence. Administration of estriol and phenylpropanolamine did not increase the urethral resistance more than estriol alone. The urodynamic effects of estriol in female dogs with urinary incontinence remain to be elucidated.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess morphologic and metabolic abnormalities in dogs with early left ventricular dysfunction (ELVD) induced by rapid right ventricular pacing (RRVP).

Animals—7 Beagles.

Procedure—Plasma carnitine concentrations were measured before and after development of ELVD induced by RRVP. At the same times, transvenous endomyocardial biopsy was performed, and specimens were submitted for determination of myocardial carnitine concentrations and histologic, morphometric, and ultrastructural examination.

Results—In 4 dogs in which baseline plasma total carnitine concentration was normal, RRVP induced a decrease in myocardial total and free carnitine concentrations and an increase in myocardial esterified carnitine concentration. In 3 dogs in which baseline plasma total carnitine concentration was low, plasma and myocardial carnitine concentrations were unchanged after pacing. Structural changes associated with pacing included perinuclear vacuolization in 3 dogs. Morphometric analyses indicated there was a decrease in myofiber cross-sectional diameter and area following pacing. Electron microscopy revealed changes in myofibrils and mitochondria following pacing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that moderate to severe alterations in myocyte cytoarchitecture are present in dogs with ELVD induced by RRVP and that in dogs with normal plasma carnitine concentrations, myocardial carnitine deficiency may be a biochemical marker of ELVD. Results also indicated that transvenous endomyocardial biopsy can be used to evaluate biochemical and structural myocardial changes in dogs with cardiac disease. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:889–894)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research