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  • Author or Editor: María S. Carrasco-Jiménez x
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Objective—To evaluate relationships among various techniques for monitoring anesthetic depth in sevoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery.

Animals—10 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were medicated with acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM), buprenorphine (0.01 mg/kg, IM), and atropine (0.04 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane. Cardiovascular and respiratory responses were monitored. Anesthetic depth was monitored by use of the bispectral index (BIS), and a proprietary index was used to monitor activity of the autonomic nervous system.

Results—A significant decrease in BIS was seen after induction but concurrent changes were not observed for the other techniques. The proprietary index increased significantly after intubation, but no changes were seen for the other techniques. No significant changes were detected during incision or when higher nociceptive stimuli were applied. We did not identify a correlation between BIS and the proprietary index, the proprietary index and hemodynamic variables, or the BIS and hemodynamic variables during induction and maintenance. A significant increase in the proprietary index and BIS was detected at the time of resumption of reflexes. During anesthetic recovery, a correlation was found between the proprietary index and BIS but not between hemodynamic variables and the other techniques.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A significant increase in the proprietary index, but not the BIS or hemodynamic variables, was detected during intubation. Anesthetic induction with sevoflurane did not prevent the sympathetic stimulus attributable to tracheal intubation. Monitoring of hemodynamic variables does not provide sufficient information to allow clinicians to evaluate stress during anesthetic recovery. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1128–1135)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate bispectral index (BIS) values in pigs during anesthesia maintained with sevoflurane- fentanyl or propofol-fentanyl as a predictor of changes in hemodynamic parameters and duration of recovery from anesthesia.

Animals—12 pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were randomly allocated to undergo 1 of 2 anesthetic regimens. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg/kg, IV); 6 pigs were administered sevoflurane via inhalation (1 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC] at a fresh gas flow rate of 3 L/min; group I), and 6 were administered propofol (11 mg/kg/h, IV; group II). All pigs received fentanyl (2.5 mg/kg, IV, q 30 min). After abdominal surgery, pigs were allowed to recover from anesthesia. Cardiovascular variables and BIS values were recorded at intervals throughout the procedure; duration of recovery from anesthesia was noted.

Results—No correlation was established between arterial blood pressure and BIS and between heart rate and BIS. Mean BIS at discontinuation of administration of the anesthetic agent was greater in group-II pigs (65.2 ± 10.6 minutes) than in group-I pigs (55.8 ± 2.9 minutes). However, recovery from anesthesia was significantly longer in group II (59.80 ± 2.52 minutes) than in group I (9.80 ± 2.35 minutes).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In swine anesthetized with sevoflurane or propofol and undergoing abdominal surgery, the BIS value derived from an electroencephalogram at the end of anesthesia was not useful for predicting the speed of recovery from anesthesia. Moreover, BIS was not useful as a predictor of clinically important changes in arterial blood pressure and heart rate in those anesthetized pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:409–416)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research