Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 8 of 8 items for

  • Author or Editor: María García x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of 2 doses of caffeine on metabolic variables in neonata pigs with peripartum asphyxia

Animals—180 neonatal pigs

Procedures—Neonatal pigs were assigned to 2 groups (groups P and F) on the basis of results for a vitality scale (passed or failed, respectively). Within each group, there were 3 subgroups of 30 pigs each. Within each group, the 3 subgroups received a placebo that consisted of an empty gelatin capsule, a gelatin capsule that contained 20 mg of caffeine, and a gelatin capsule that contained 35 mg of caffeine, respectively; all capsules were administered orally (0 hours). Blood samples were collected immediately before and 24 hours after capsule administration.

Results—Pigs in groups P and F that received 20 or 35 mg of caffeine had significant increases in triglyceride concentrations. All pigs in groups P and F had a significant decrease in lactate concentrations, although the placebo-treated pigs in group F had larger decreases than did the group F pigs treated with 20 or 35 mg of caffeine. Glucose concentrations increased significantly in group F pigs treated with 20 or 35 mg of caffeine (30% and 50%, respectively), whereas glucose concentrations remained unchanged in group P pigs. In pigs treated with 35 mg of caffeine, the final weight obtained for group F was approximately 8% lower than that obtained for group P

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administering caffeine immediately after birth to neonatal pigs with severe oxygen restriction resulted in significant improvements in metabolic variables. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1214-1219)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for xenogeneic use with intra-articular administration in dogs with osteoarthritis.

ANIMALS

80 client-owned dogs with naturally occurring osteoarthritis in elbow or hip.

PROCEDURES

A multicentric, double-blinded, parallel, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed. After intra-articular injection of equine umbilical cord MSCs, dogs were reexamined at weeks 4, 8, and 12 using a force platform (gait analysis), orthopedic assessment, and validated owner questionnaire. Eighteen months after treatment, a long-term follow-up was done.

RESULTS

Best results were obtained 8 weeks after treatment, where 63% of the patients showed an improvement in the gait analysis. Also 8 weeks after treatment, 77% of the dogs improved in the orthopedic examination; 65% of the owners considered that the treatment improved their pet’s quality of life 8 weeks after treatment. The long-term follow-up revealed that 59% of the owners observed a duration of effect longer than 6 months after a single intra-articular injection of equine umbilical cord MSCs. No systemic or permanent adverse events were detected at any time point.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of this study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of intra-articular administration of xenogeneic MSCs for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To compare pharmacokinetic variables of enrofloxacin (ENR) after IV administration in mice, rats, rabbits, sheep, and cows and to perform allometric analysis of ENR.

Animals

47 mice, 5 rats, 5 rabbits, 5 sheep, and 5 cows.

Procedure

Serially obtained plasma samples were assayed for enr concentration, using high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro plasma protein binding was determined by ultrafiltration. Plasma enr concentration versus time curves were fitted by use of nonlinear least-squared regression analysis. Pharmacokinetic variables were correlated further with body weight.

Results

In all species studied, the best fit was obtained for a two-compartment open model; ENR half-life ranged from 89 minutes in mice to 169 minutes in cows. Volume of distribution was large in all species studied, with values ranging from 10.5 L/kg in mice to 1.5 L/kg in sheep. Body clearance ranged from 68.1 ml/min/kg for mice to 4.6 ml/min/kg for sheep. Unbound ENR was found to be (mean ± SD) 58 ± 2, 50 ± 6, 50 ± 2, 31 ± 2, and 40 ± 3% in plasma of mice, rats, rabbits, sheep, and cows, respectively. The only pharmacokinetic variables that could be correlated with body weight were elimination half-life, clearance, and volume of distribution. Allometric exponents denoting proportionality of half-life, body clearance, and volume of distribution with body weight were 0.06, 0.82, and 0.90, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

An allometric approach could provide a suitable method for determining a scale for ENR pharmacokinetics among various mammalian species. This would faciliatate the administration of appropriate doses of ENR to all animals. [Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1111–1116)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the pharmacokinetics and milk penetration of enrofloxacin (ENR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) in lactating rabbits and their disposition in suckling rabbits.

Design

Prospective cross-over study.

Animals

6 lactating New Zealand White rabbits and their offspring (16 days after parturition).

Procedure

Serial plasma and milk samples were assayed by use of a high-performance liquid chromatography technique. In vitro protein binding in plasma and skim milk was measured by ultrafiltration. Skim-to-whole milk ratio also was determined. The time course of ENR and CIP was fitted by nonlinear least squares regression analysis, and the pharmacokinetic variables were compared.

Results

The time courses of ENR and CIP in plasma were similar in lactating adult rabbits (mean body clearances, 23.9 and 27.2 ml/min/kg of body weight, for ENR and CIP, respectively). Observed milk-to-plasma ratios (M/P) were determined, using the area under the milk and plasma concentration versus time profiles (ENR, 2.59; CIP, 3.61). Predicted M/P (ENR, 6.35; CIP, 3.04) were calculated from in vitro measurements. Body clearance calculated for ENR and CIP in suckling rabbit pups involved a decrease of 80 and 74%, respectively, over that found in lactating animals.

Conclusions

Observed CIP M/P were correlated to predicted values, which strengthens the argument that CIP passes into the milk by nonionic diffusion. The lack of correlation between observed and predicted ENR M/P pointed out that ENR undergoes faster elimination from milk than that predicted by the diffusional model. Diminished elimination capacity observed in suckling rabbits would result in greater exposure than that predicted from concentrations alone. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:547–553)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Placental transfer of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin was evaluated, using a rabbit in situ perfusion model. A two-step infusion program was carried out to obtain steady-state maternal plasma concentrations of these drugs. For each compound, the placenta in 5 rabbits was perfused for 200 minutes with Earle's enriched bicarbonate buffer at flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. To assess reliability of the model, most of the determinants of placental transfer (maternal and fetal pH, gas balance, heart status, rectal temperature, and protein binding) were controlled. In addition, the infusion program included administration of antipyrine, a commonly used indicator of placental exchange.

Drug concentrations were measured in maternal plasma and perfusate by use of a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. Plasma protein-binding estimation indicated no differences between the drugs. Placental clearance of the drugs was significantly (P< 0.01) different (0.88 ± 0.13 ml/min for enrofloxacin and 0.06 ± 0.02 ml/min for ciprofloxacin). These values accounted for 81 and 5%, respectively, of the placental clearance found for antipyrine.

These results indicate that caution must be taken when enrofloxacin is to be used during pregnancy, and suggest the need to extend this type of experiment to species that can be exposed to these drugs used for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Immunoelectrophoresis and single radial immunodiffusion were used to identify and measure tear immunoglobulin concentrations in 50 healthy dogs. Immunoglobulin A and IgG were detected in all samples analyzed, whereas IgM was not detected in any sample. Mean IgA concentration was 25.28 ± 1.9 mg/dl, adult dogs (> 18 months) having significantly higher mean value. The IgA concentration related to age had significant (P < 0.006) positive correlation; mean IgG concentration was 23.10 ± 1.72 mg/dl. Linear correlation analysis revealed significant (P < 0.0007) correlation coefficient between tear total protein and IgA concentrations. The IgA and IgG concentrations also were significantly (P < 0.0001) correlated when expressed as milligrams per 100 mg of protein. Relation with sex was not established for either immunoglobulin.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders by measuring its concentration at various sample collection sites.

Sample—26 udders (obtained following euthanasia) from 26 healthy lactating sheep.

Procedures—For each isolated udder, 1 mammary gland was perfused with warmed, gassed Tyrode solution. Enrofloxacin (1 g of enrofloxacin/5 g of ointment) was administered into the perfused gland via the intramammary route or systemically via the perfusion fluid (equivalent to a dose of 5 mg/kg). Samples of the perfusate were obtained every 30 minutes for 180 minutes; glandular tissue samples were obtained at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base after 180 minutes. The enrofloxacin content of the perfusate and tissue samples was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

Results—After intramammary administration, maximun perfusate enrofloxacin concentration was detected at 180 minutes and, at this time, mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was detected and mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was 123.80, 54.48, 36.72, and 26.42 μg/g of tissue at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base, respectively. Following systemic administration, perfusate enrofloxacin concentration decreased with time and, at 180 minutes, tissue enrofloxacin concentrations ranged from 40.38 to 35.58 μg/g of tissue.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By 180 minutes after administration via the intramammary or systemic route in isolated perfused sheep mammary glands, mean tissue concentration of enrofloxacin was greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit growth of 90% of many common mastitis pathogens in sheep. Use of either route of administration (or in combination) appears suitable for the treatment of acute mastitis in sheep.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research