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  • Author or Editor: Manuela Perego x
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Abstract

Objective—To characterize the electrocardiographic features of the atrial repolarization (Ta) wave in dogs with third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block.

Sample—ECGs of 36 dogs with third-degree AV block and no identifiable structural heart diseases.

Procedures—Standard 12-lead ECGs were acquired with a digital system, and measurements were manually edited.

Results—A Ta wave was detectable in all dogs for at least 1 ECG lead. The Ta wave had negative polarity in leads I, II, III, and aVF and positive polarity in leads aVL and aVR, with a mean electrical axis of −114.26°. Mean duration and mean amplitude of the Ta wave in lead II were 140.2 milliseconds and −0.09 mV, respectively, with the ratio for the Ta-to-P wave duration of 2.3 and the ratio of Ta-to-P wave amplitude of −0.35. Significant correlations were found between the Ta wave duration and duration of the P-Ta interval, Ta wave amplitude and the ECG lead, Ta wave duration and body weight, and duration of the P-Ta interval and atrial rate. Measurements of the Ta wave were repeatable.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurements of the Ta wave in dogs with third-degree AV block were repeatable. The values for the Ta wave reported here can be used as reference values for dogs with AV conduction disturbances and an echocardiographically normal atrial size. Further studies are needed to validate these results in dogs with structural heart diseases.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the diagnostic value of an implantable loop recorder (ILR) in dogs with unexplained syncope.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—12 dogs with recurrent unexplained syncope.

Procedures—An ILR was surgically inserted in a pocket created in the subcutaneous tissues of the left hemithorax of each dog. The ILRs were programmed for manual and automatic activation, and event analysis and programming were performed at 3-month intervals and after each syncopal episode.

Results—The ILR was manually activated in 7 of 12 dogs at least once within 45 to 218 days (median, 120 days) after implantation. Four dogs had syncopal episodes associated with sinus tachycardia followed by sinus bradycardia and asystolic pauses. Two dogs had ventricular tachycardia, and 1 dog had sinus node dysfunction with prolonged sinus arrest that coincided with loss of consciousness and falling. Four dogs had no additional syncopal episodes after implantation of the ILR. In the remaining dog, the owner was unable to activate the ILR during the only syncopal episode observed for that dog after ILR implantation. In all 12 dogs, analysis of ECG traces after automatic activation of recording revealed normal cardiac rhythms.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data gained after manual activation of an ILR provided valuable diagnostic and prognostic information in almost all dogs with unexplained syncopal episodes by confirming or disproving an association between syncope and arrhythmias. However, detection of disturbances in cardiac rhythm after automatic activation did not appear to improve the diagnostic value for an ILR implanted in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess recording accuracy of right atrial and ventricular depolarization during 12-lead ECG when precordial lead V1 was positioned at each of 5 locations on the thorax of dogs with various thoracic conformations.

ANIMALS

60 healthy client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

20 dogs were allocated to each of 3 groups (brachymorphic, mesomorphic, or dolichomorphic) on the basis of thoracic conformation. Each dog remained unsedated and was positioned in right lateral recumbency for a series of five 12-lead surface ECGs, with V1 located adjacent to the sternum in the fifth intercostal space (ICS; control), at the costochondral junction (CCJ) of the right first ICS (1st-R), at the CCJ of the right third ICS, at the right third ICS where the thorax was the widest, and at the CCJ of the left first ICS. Electrocardiographic variables were compared among the 5 ECG tracings.

RESULTS

When V1 was at the control location, the P wave was positive for all dogs; however, consistent recording of right atrial and ventricular depolarization (ie, R wave-to-S wave ratio [R/S] < 1) occurred more frequently for brachymorphic dogs (16/20) than for dolichomorphic (7/20) and mesomorphic (6/20) dogs. When V1 was at the 1st-R location, the P wave was negative for most dogs, and R/S was < 1 for the majority of dogs in the brachymorphic (19/20), mesomorphic (17/20), and dolichomorphic (16/20) groups. The median R/S for V1 at the 1st-R location was significantly lower than that for the other 4 V1 locations.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that placement of V1 at the 1st-R location provided correct evaluation of right atrial and ventricular depolarization in most dogs regardless of thoracic conformation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prevalence of nucleic acid from selected cardiotropic pathogens in endomyocardial biopsy samples from dogs with unexplained myocardial and rhythm disorders (UMRD) and compare prevalence with that for a group of control dogs with congenital heart disease (CHD).

ANIMALS

47 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy was performed in dogs with UMRD (dilated cardiomyopathy [n = 25], atrioventricular block [6], and nonfamilial ventricular [4] and supraventricular arrhythmias [2]) or CHD (10) that required right ventricular catheterization. Biopsy samples were evaluated histologically, and PCR assays were used for detection of nucleic acid from 12 pathogens.

RESULTS

197 biopsy samples were collected from dogs with UMRD (n = 172) or CHD (25). At least 1 pathogen was detected in 21 of 37 (57%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 41% to 71%) dogs with UMRD, and canine coronavirus was detected in 1 of 10 (10%; 95% CI, 2% to 40%) dogs with CHD. Dogs with UMRD were significantly more likely than dogs with CHD to have pathogens detected in biopsy samples (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 103.0). The most common pathogens in dogs with UMRD were canine distemper virus, canine coronavirus, canine parvovirus 2, and Bartonella spp. No pathogens were detected in available blood samples from dogs with pathogens detected in biopsy samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Detection of nucleic acids from selected cardiotropic pathogens in myocardial tissue from dogs with UMRD suggested a possible association between the 2. Further studies are needed to explore whether this association is causative or clinically important. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019;255:1150–1160)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the anatomic distribution and electrophysiologic properties of accessory pathways (APs) in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—10 dogs with tachyarrhythmias associated with an AP.

Procedures—Each dog underwent electrophysiologic testing to determine the inducibility of documented and undocumented arrhythmias and to identify location, conduction properties, and antegrade and retrograde effective refractory periods of the APs. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was then performed.

Results—15 APs were identified; 7 dogs each had a single AP, and 3 had multiple APs. Fourteen of the 15 APs were right-sided (6 right free wall, 4 posteroseptal, 3 midseptal, and 1 anteroseptal), and 1 was left-sided (left free wall). All APs conducted in an all-or-none fashion. Unidirectional retrograde conduction was observed in 11 APs, and bidirectional conduction was observed in 4. All documented tachyarrhythmias could be induced during electrophysiologic testing; atrial fibrillation was also inducible in 2 dogs. Mean ± SD cycle duration of orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia was 215.80 ± 44.87 milliseconds. Mean shortest R-R interval during atrial fibrillation was 247.33 ± 83.17 milliseconds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs, most APs are right-sided, had unidirectional retrograde conduction, and are associated with various arrhythmias, including orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia and atrial fibrillation without evidence of pre-excitation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association