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  • Author or Editor: Manuel Chirino-Trejo x
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OBJECTIVE To determine by use of an in vitro model the potential for translocating sufficient numbers of bacteria into a joint during arthrocentesis through cellulitic tissue to cause sepsis.

SAMPLE Culture media containing 4 concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus and needles of 3 sizes.

PROCEDURES Needles (22, 20, and 19 gauge) were inserted through Mueller-Hinton agar that contained known concentrations of S aureus (103,104,105, and 106 CFUs/mL). After a needle exited through the medium, any agar plug within the needle bore was ejected into a sterile syringe and the contaminated portion of the needle was harvested. Sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was used to emulsify the agar plug and wash the contaminated portion of the needle. The resulting solution was cultured to determine the number of bacterial CFUs that could be deposited into a joint during arthrocentesis through contaminated tissue.

RESULTS Needle gauge and bacterial concentration were both associated with the number of bacterial CFUs deposited after insertion through contaminated agar. Although all needle sizes were capable of bacterial translocation sufficient to cause septic arthritis, ORs for 20- and 22-gauge needles translocating > 33 CFUs of S aureus were significantly higher than the OR for a 19-gauge needle. The ORs for 20- or 22-gauge needles translocating > 33 CFUs of S aureus (the minimum population of S aureus known to cause joint sepsis) were 0.22.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this in vitro model indicated that caution should be used when performing arthrocentesis through cellulitic tissue.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in conjunctival bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria after cataract surgery in dogs.

ANIMALS 16 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES Samples for aerobic and anaerobic culture were obtained from the conjunctival fornices of both eyes of dogs 24 hours before (week 0) and 1, 3, and 6 weeks after cataract surgery. Topical administration of ofloxacin (every 6 hours) was initiated 12 hours before surgery and continued for 3 weeks. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion and a commercially available test for ofloxacin.

RESULTS Frequency of positive culture results was significantly higher at week 6 than at weeks 0 and 1. Bacterial load was more likely to be moderate or high at weeks 3 and 6 than at weeks 0 and 1. The most frequently cultured organism was Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (21/78 [26.9%]), followed by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp (19/78 [24.4%]). Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was the organism most frequently cultured at weeks 0 (5/12), 1 (4/12), and 6 (8/19), whereas frequency of this organism was lowest at week 3 (1/20). In contrast, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp were the most frequently cultured organisms at week 3 (10/20). There was a significant increase in the proportion of organisms resistant to ofloxacin at week 3, compared with the proportion at week 0.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The number of bacterial organisms increased and the population of conjunctival bacteria was altered and had a higher proportion resistant to ofloxacin during the 6 weeks after cataract surgery for dogs treated by use of this protocol.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research