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  • Author or Editor: Manfred Fürll x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare abomasal luminal gas pressure and volume and perfusion of the abomasum in dairy cows with a left displaced abomasum (LDA) or abomasal volvulus (AV).

Animals—40 lactating dairy cows (25 with an LDA and 15 with an AV).

Procedure—Abomasal luminal gas pressure and volume and pulse oximetry values for the caudal portion of the dorsal ruminal sac and abomasal wall were measured during laparotomy. Abomasal perfusion was assessed on the basis of abomasal O2 saturation (pulse oximetry) before correction of the LDA or AV. Abomasal perfusion was also assessed after correction of the LDA or AV by measuring venous O2 saturation in the right gastroepiploic vein and calculating the abomasal oxygen-extraction ratio.

Results—Abomasal luminal gas pressure and volume were higher in cattle with an AV than in cattle with an LDA. Abomasal O2 saturation was lower and abomasal oxygen-extraction ratio higher in cattle with an AV, compared with values in cattle with an LDA. In cows with an AV, lactate concentration in the gastroepiploic vein was greater than that in a jugular vein, whereas no difference in lactate concentrations was detected in cows with an LDA. Abomasal luminal gas pressure was positively correlated ( r, 0.51) with plasma lactate concentration in the gastroepiploic vein and negatively correlated ( r, –0.32) with abomasal O2 saturation determined by use of pulse oximetry.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abomasal perfusion decreases as luminal pressure increases in cattle with an AV or LDA. ( Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:597–603)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether preoperative administration of erythromycin or flunixin meglumine altered postoperative abomasal emptying rate, rumen contraction rate, or milk production in dairy cattle undergoing surgical correction of left displacement of the abomasum (LDA).

Design—Nonrandomized, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—45 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with LDA.

Procedures—Cows were alternately assigned to an erythromycin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], IM), flunixin (2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb], IV), or control group (n = 15/group). Treatments were administered once 1 hour before surgical correction of LDA. D-Xylose solution (50%; 0.5 g/kg [0.23 g/lb]) was injected into the abomasal lumen during surgery, and venous blood samples were periodically obtained to determine time to maximum serum D-xylose concentration.

Results—Abomasal emptying rate was significantly faster in cows treated with erythromycin (mean ± SD time to maximum serum D-xylose concentration, 149 ± 48 minutes) than in control cows (277 ± 95 minutes) but was not significantly different between cows treated with flunixin (230 ± 49 minutes) and control cows. Cows treated with erythromycin had significantly greater milk production, relative to production before surgery, on postoperative days 1 and 2 than did control cows. Cows in the erythromycin and flunixin groups had a significantly higher rumen contraction rate on the first postoperative day than did control cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that preoperative administration of a single dose of erythromycin increased abomasal emptying rate, rumen contraction rate, and milk production in the immediate postoperative period in cows undergoing surgical correction of LDA.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop an equation expressing urine pH in terms of independent variables, derive an equation relating urine pH to net acid excretion (NAE), and apply this new knowledge to determine the role that monitoring urine pH should play when diets with low cationanion difference are fed to dairy cattle.

Animals—11 Holstein-Friesian cows.

Procedures—A physicochemical strong ion approach was used to develop a general electroneutrality equation for urine that involved urine pH and strong ion difference (SID [difference between strong cation and strong anion concentrations]), PCO 2, the concentration of ammonium ([NH4 +]) and phosphate ([PO4]), and 3 constants. The general electroneutrality equation was simplified for use in bovine urine and applied to 321 data points from 11 cows fed different diets.

Results—Urine pH was dependent on 4 independent variables (urine SID, [NH4 +], PCO 2, and [PO4]) and 3 constants. The simplified electroneutrality equation for bovine urine was pH ≈ {pK1′ − log10(S PCO 2)} + log10([K+] + [Na+] + [Mg2+] + [Ca2+] + [NH4 +] − [Cl] − [SO4 2−]). The relationship between urine pH and NAE (in mEq/L) for cattle fed different diets was pH = 6.12 + log10(−NAE + [NH4 +] + 2.6).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A change in urine SID, [NH4 +], PCO 2, or [PO4] independently and directly led to a change in urine pH. Urinary [K+] had the greatest effect on urine pH in cattle, with high urine [K+] resulting in alkaline urine and low urine [K+] resulting in acidic urine. Urine pH provided an accurate assessment of NAE in cattle when pH was > 6.3.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research