To describe clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes for kittens with phimosis and to develop a system to classify phimosis on the basis of gross pathological lesions.
8 kittens with phimosis.
Medical record databases of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were searched to identify records of cats ≤ 20 weeks old (ie, kittens) with phimosis that underwent surgical intervention between 2009 and 2017. For each kitten, information extracted from the record included signalment, history, clinical signs, physical examination findings, treatments, and details regarding the surgical procedure performed, postoperative complications, and outcome.
The most common clinical signs were stranguria (n = 6), marked preputial swelling (5), and a small (6) or inevident (2) preputial orifice. Six kittens had type 1 phimosis (generalized preputial swelling owing to urine pooling without penile-preputial adhesions) and underwent circumferential preputioplasty. Two kittens had type 2 phimosis (focal preputial swelling and urine pooling in the presence of penile-preputial adhesions) and underwent preputial urethrostomy. No postoperative complications were recorded for kittens that underwent preputial urethrostomy. All 6 kittens that underwent circumferential preputioplasty had some exposure of the tip of the penis immediately after surgery, which typically resolved over time. At the time of last follow-up (mean, 1.4 years after surgery), all 8 patients were able to urinate and had no signs of phimosis recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that circumferential preputioplasty and preputial urethrostomy could be used to successfully manage kittens with type 1 and type 2 phimosis, respectively.
To characterize abdominal lymphatic drainage in cats after thoracic duct ligation (TDL) and cisterna chyli ablation (CCA).
7 purpose-bred research cats.
Baseline CT lymphangiography was performed. A popliteal lymph node was injected with iohexol, and images were acquired at 5-minute intervals for 15 minutes. Cats underwent TDL and CCA; methylene blue was used to aid in identifying lymphatic vessels. The CT lymphangiography was repeated immediately after and 30 days after surgery. All cats were euthanized and necropsied.
Results of baseline CT lymphangiography were unremarkable for all 7 cats. Only 5 cats completed the study. Leakage of contrast medium at the level of the cisterna chyli was seen on CT lymphangiography images obtained from all cats immediately after surgery. Evaluation of 30-day postoperative CT lymphangiography images revealed small branches entering the caudal vena cava in 2 cats, leakage of contrast medium into the caudal vena cava with no visible branches in 1 cat, and no contrast medium in the caudal vena cava in 2 cats. Contrast medium did not flow beyond the level of the cisterna chyli in any cat. Gross examination during necropsy revealed that all cats had small lymphatic vessels that appeared to connect to local vasculature identified in the region of the cisterna chyli.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Abdominal lymphaticovenous anastomoses formed after TDL and CCA in cats. This would support use of these procedures for treatment of cats with idiopathic chylothorax, although additional studies with clinically affected cats are warranted.
To characterize the anatomic location of the esophageal ostium relative to the rima glottidis in adult Labrador Retrievers with the use of CT.
98 CT scans of 75 adult Labrador Retrievers.
A search of the medical records database identified records of Labrador Retrievers that underwent CT of the head and neck between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018. Evaluators, blinded to each other's results, reviewed CT images and measured esophageal area at the level of the rima glottidis. For each dog, the left esophageal percentage (LEP) was calculated as the esophageal area left of the rima glottidis midline divided by the overall esophageal area at that level. Variables (age, sex, patient position, intubation status, and maxillary support during CT) were evaluated for association with LEP. The CT images of dogs that had multiple scans were assessed for within-patient variance.
Mean LEP was 56.2 ± 18.1% for all dogs. Only right lateral recumbency was significantly associated with LEP, with a lower LEP for dogs positioned in right lateral recumbency (42.4 ± 12.7%), compared with left lateral (63.0 ± 7.4%) or sternal (57.3 ± 18.8%) recumbency. No association was detected between LEP and other variables assessed. Eleven dogs had multiple CT scans; within-patient variance for LEP was ± 26.6%.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that, although most dogs had an LEP > 50%, the esophageal ostium was fairly centrally located in most dogs and may be more mobile than previously thought. Additional research is warranted to assess this mobility and whether the esophageal ostium location, relative to the larynx, affects the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in dogs undergoing surgical treatment for geriatric-onset laryngeal paralysis and polyneuropathy.
To retrospectively compare the incidence of incisional complications in dogs undergoing surgery for mast cell tumors (MCTs) and soft tissue sarcomas (STSs).
Dogs that underwent excision of ≥ 1 MCT, STS, or both from January 2014 to July 2019 and had ≥ 30 days postoperative follow-up were included. Signalment; anesthesia and surgery time; administration of propofol; tumor type, grade, location, and size; intended surgical margins; histologic margins; perioperative radiation, chemotherapy, and corticosteroid and antihistamine (MCT group) treatments; and incisional complications (classified as major or minor) were recorded. Follow-up information was obtained from owners or primary care veterinarians, if needed. Incidence and severity of incisional complications were compared between the MCT and STS groups. Potential risk factors were assessed for associations with incisional complications by simple and multiple logistic regression analysis.
The 218 dogs underwent surgery for 293 tumors (209 MCTs and 84 STSs). Complication rates did not differ between MCT (28/209 [13%]) and STS (12/84 [14%]) groups. For the MCT group, incomplete margins (vs complete or narrow), increasing Patnaik tumor grade, and postoperative chemotherapy (yes vs no) were associated with increased odds of incisional complications on simple regression. On multiple logistic regression, postoperative chemotherapy was associated with increased odds of incisional complications for the MCT group and both groups combined.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
On the basis of the results, we suggest that chemotherapy be used with caution ≤ 30 days after surgery for dogs with MCTs. Corticosteroid administration was not associated with incisional complications for the MCT group in this study.
A 4-year-old spayed female French Bulldog was referred for treatment of a suspected right-sided nasal angiofibroma associated with a 4-month history of unilateral nasal discharge and stertor.
The dog appeared healthy other than right-sided mucoid debris and decreased airflow through the right naris. The dog was anesthetized, and a large intranasal mass was observed obstructing the right nasal passage and abutting the nasal septum.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A lateral rhinotomy was performed, and rigid endoscopes (0° and 30°) were used to examine the right nasal cavity. The mass filled the anterior aspect of the nasal cavity and involved a portion of the nasal turbinates with some erosion. A coblation unit was used to ablate tumor tissue laterally to remove the tumor in piecemeal fashion. Recovery was routine with only minor epistaxis after surgery, and the dog was discharged the next day. Eight months after surgery, follow-up CT revealed right-sided nasal turbinate and conchal atrophy consistent with prior mass ablation. No macroscopic recurrence was detected, and the owners reported only rare, clear rhinorrhea.
Findings suggested that coblation may be an alternative to radiation therapy for vascular tumors with minimal invasion and low metastatic potential.
Describe clinical features, treatment, and outcomes in dogs with deep neck infections.
19 dogs undergoing surgical treatment of deep neck infections from January 1, 2015, through December 31, 2020.
Retrospective record review was conducted, with data collected including clinical signs; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); diagnostic imaging, surgical, and histopathologic findings; and follow-up. Spearman correlation and Wilcoxon rank sum were used to compare variables to NLR.
All dogs had cervical swelling, and 9 were febrile. On CT, a distinct mass or abscess (7/13) or abscessed lymph node (4/13) was common, with contrast enhancement (10/13), fluid tracking (8/13), and displacement of the trachea, pharynx, or larynx (6/13) also frequently seen. Foreign material was suspected on CT for 4 dogs and was identified at surgery or histopathology for 4 dogs, only 1 of which was suspected on CT. Histopathology most commonly revealed pyogranulomatous inflammation (14/15). Increasing NLR was moderately correlated to a decreased duration of clinical signs before presentation (ρ = –0.548; P = .035) and an increased length of hospitalization (ρ = 0.645; P = .009). Bacterial culture was submitted for all dogs, and polymicrobial infections were common (8/19). Broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobials were commonly prescribed. Change in antimicrobial treatment based on culture was uncommon (3/19). All dogs survived to hospital discharge; 18 dogs with long-term follow-up had complete resolution of clinical signs.
CT was useful to plan for surgery, and surgical treatment resulted in resolution of clinical signs in all dogs with long-term follow-up available. Empirical antimicrobial treatment, such as amoxicillin–clavulanic acid or ampicillin-sulbactam, should be considered.
OBJECTIVE To develop a device intended for gradual venous occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks.
SAMPLE Silicone tubing filled with various inorganic salt and polyacrylic acid (PAA) formulations and mounted within a polypropylene or polyether ether ketone (PEEK) outer ring.
PROCEDURES 15 polypropylene prototype rings were initially filled with 1 of 5 formulations and placed in PBSS. In a second test, 10 polypropylene and 7 PEEK prototype rings were filled with 1 formulation and placed in PBSS. In a third test, 2 formulations were loaded into 6 PEEK rings each, placed in physiologic solution, and incubated. In all tests, ring luminal diameter, outer diameter, and luminal area were measured over 6 weeks.
RESULTS In the first test, 2 formulations had the greatest changes in luminal area and diameter, and 1 of those had a greater linear swell rate than the other had. In the second test, 6 of 7 PEEK rings and 6 of 10 polypropylene rings closed to a luminal diamater < 1 mm within 6 weeks. Polypropylene rings had a greater increase in outer diameter than did PEEK rings between 4.5 and 6 weeks. In the third test, 11 of 12 PEEK rings gradually closed to a luminal diameter < 1 mm within 6 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A PAA and inorganic salt formulation in a prototype silicone and polymer ring resulted in gradual occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks in vitro. Prototype PEEK rings provided more reliable closure than did polypropylene rings.
To identify risk factors for intra- and postoperative ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and in-hospital mortality in dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses.
Records from 2010 through 2018 were reviewed for dogs undergoing splenectomy for a splenic mass. Clinical and laboratory findings on admission, diagnostic imaging, anesthesia, surgery and pathology reports, treatment records, and in-hospital mortality were evaluated with logistic regression.
VAs occurred in 138 (44.8%) dogs (126/308 [40.9%] postoperative, 51/308 [16.6%] intraoperative, 26/308 [8.4%] preoperative), with 50/308 (16.2%) dogs having more than one type of VA. Increasing heart rate and body weight, decreasing PCV and platelet count, hemoperitoneum, receipt of a transfusion, and diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma were associated with the presence of intra- and postoperative VAs on univariable analysis (all P < .001). On multivariable analysis, hemoperitoneum (P < .001 , < .001), increasing body weight (P = .026, < .001), and increasing heart rate (P = .028, < .001) were significant for intra- and postoperative VAs, respectively. Twenty dogs died (20/308 [6.5%]; 14/138 [10.1%] with VAs, 6/170 [3.5%] without VAs). Intra- and postoperative VAs were associated with in-hospital mortality (P = .009, .025, respectively).
Perioperative VAs were common and odds of VAs were increased with hemoperitoneum, increasing heart rate, and increasing body weight. Presence of VAs increased the odds of in-hospital mortality. Despite this, the overall in-hospital mortality rate was low (6.5%), indicating a good prognosis for survival of surgery in dogs with splenic masses, regardless of the presence of VAs or hemoperitoneum.