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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes for kittens with phimosis and to develop a system to classify phimosis on the basis of gross pathological lesions.

ANIMALS

8 kittens with phimosis.

PROCEDURES

Medical record databases of 2 veterinary teaching hospitals were searched to identify records of cats ≤ 20 weeks old (ie, kittens) with phimosis that underwent surgical intervention between 2009 and 2017. For each kitten, information extracted from the record included signalment, history, clinical signs, physical examination findings, treatments, and details regarding the surgical procedure performed, postoperative complications, and outcome.

RESULTS

The most common clinical signs were stranguria (n = 6), marked preputial swelling (5), and a small (6) or inevident (2) preputial orifice. Six kittens had type 1 phimosis (generalized preputial swelling owing to urine pooling without penile-preputial adhesions) and underwent circumferential preputioplasty. Two kittens had type 2 phimosis (focal preputial swelling and urine pooling in the presence of penile-preputial adhesions) and underwent preputial urethrostomy. No postoperative complications were recorded for kittens that underwent preputial urethrostomy. All 6 kittens that underwent circumferential preputioplasty had some exposure of the tip of the penis immediately after surgery, which typically resolved over time. At the time of last follow-up (mean, 1.4 years after surgery), all 8 patients were able to urinate and had no signs of phimosis recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that circumferential preputioplasty and preputial urethrostomy could be used to successfully manage kittens with type 1 and type 2 phimosis, respectively.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 4-year-old spayed female French Bulldog was referred for treatment of a suspected right-sided nasal angiofibroma associated with a 4-month history of unilateral nasal discharge and stertor.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The dog appeared healthy other than right-sided mucoid debris and decreased airflow through the right naris. The dog was anesthetized, and a large intranasal mass was observed obstructing the right nasal passage and abutting the nasal septum.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

A lateral rhinotomy was performed, and rigid endoscopes (0° and 30°) were used to examine the right nasal cavity. The mass filled the anterior aspect of the nasal cavity and involved a portion of the nasal turbinates with some erosion. A coblation unit was used to ablate tumor tissue laterally to remove the tumor in piecemeal fashion. Recovery was routine with only minor epistaxis after surgery, and the dog was discharged the next day. Eight months after surgery, follow-up CT revealed right-sided nasal turbinate and conchal atrophy consistent with prior mass ablation. No macroscopic recurrence was detected, and the owners reported only rare, clear rhinorrhea.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that coblation may be an alternative to radiation therapy for vascular tumors with minimal invasion and low metastatic potential.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the anatomic location of the esophageal ostium relative to the rima glottidis in adult Labrador Retrievers with the use of CT.

ANIMALS

98 CT scans of 75 adult Labrador Retrievers.

PROCEDURES

A search of the medical records database identified records of Labrador Retrievers that underwent CT of the head and neck between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018. Evaluators, blinded to each other's results, reviewed CT images and measured esophageal area at the level of the rima glottidis. For each dog, the left esophageal percentage (LEP) was calculated as the esophageal area left of the rima glottidis midline divided by the overall esophageal area at that level. Variables (age, sex, patient position, intubation status, and maxillary support during CT) were evaluated for association with LEP. The CT images of dogs that had multiple scans were assessed for within-patient variance.

RESULTS

Mean LEP was 56.2 ± 18.1% for all dogs. Only right lateral recumbency was significantly associated with LEP, with a lower LEP for dogs positioned in right lateral recumbency (42.4 ± 12.7%), compared with left lateral (63.0 ± 7.4%) or sternal (57.3 ± 18.8%) recumbency. No association was detected between LEP and other variables assessed. Eleven dogs had multiple CT scans; within-patient variance for LEP was ± 26.6%.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that, although most dogs had an LEP > 50%, the esophageal ostium was fairly centrally located in most dogs and may be more mobile than previously thought. Additional research is warranted to assess this mobility and whether the esophageal ostium location, relative to the larynx, affects the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in dogs undergoing surgical treatment for geriatric-onset laryngeal paralysis and polyneuropathy.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop a device intended for gradual venous occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks.

SAMPLE Silicone tubing filled with various inorganic salt and polyacrylic acid (PAA) formulations and mounted within a polypropylene or polyether ether ketone (PEEK) outer ring.

PROCEDURES 15 polypropylene prototype rings were initially filled with 1 of 5 formulations and placed in PBSS. In a second test, 10 polypropylene and 7 PEEK prototype rings were filled with 1 formulation and placed in PBSS. In a third test, 2 formulations were loaded into 6 PEEK rings each, placed in physiologic solution, and incubated. In all tests, ring luminal diameter, outer diameter, and luminal area were measured over 6 weeks.

RESULTS In the first test, 2 formulations had the greatest changes in luminal area and diameter, and 1 of those had a greater linear swell rate than the other had. In the second test, 6 of 7 PEEK rings and 6 of 10 polypropylene rings closed to a luminal diamater < 1 mm within 6 weeks. Polypropylene rings had a greater increase in outer diameter than did PEEK rings between 4.5 and 6 weeks. In the third test, 11 of 12 PEEK rings gradually closed to a luminal diameter < 1 mm within 6 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A PAA and inorganic salt formulation in a prototype silicone and polymer ring resulted in gradual occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks in vitro. Prototype PEEK rings provided more reliable closure than did polypropylene rings.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To retrospectively compare the incidence of incisional complications in dogs undergoing surgery for mast cell tumors (MCTs) and soft tissue sarcomas (STSs).

ANIMALS

218 dogs.

PROCEDURES

Dogs that underwent excision of ≥ 1 MCT, STS, or both from January 2014 to July 2019 and had ≥ 30 days postoperative follow-up were included. Signalment; anesthesia and surgery time; administration of propofol; tumor type, grade, location, and size; intended surgical margins; histologic margins; perioperative radiation, chemotherapy, and corticosteroid and antihistamine (MCT group) treatments; and incisional complications (classified as major or minor) were recorded. Follow-up information was obtained from owners or primary care veterinarians, if needed. Incidence and severity of incisional complications were compared between the MCT and STS groups. Potential risk factors were assessed for associations with incisional complications by simple and multiple logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

The 218 dogs underwent surgery for 293 tumors (209 MCTs and 84 STSs). Complication rates did not differ between MCT (28/209 [13%]) and STS (12/84 [14%]) groups. For the MCT group, incomplete margins (vs complete or narrow), increasing Patnaik tumor grade, and postoperative chemotherapy (yes vs no) were associated with increased odds of incisional complications on simple regression. On multiple logistic regression, postoperative chemotherapy was associated with increased odds of incisional complications for the MCT group and both groups combined.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

On the basis of the results, we suggest that chemotherapy be used with caution ≤ 30 days after surgery for dogs with MCTs. Corticosteroid administration was not associated with incisional complications for the MCT group in this study.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize abdominal lymphatic drainage in cats after thoracic duct ligation (TDL) and cisterna chyli ablation (CCA).

ANIMALS

7 purpose-bred research cats.

PROCEDURES

Baseline CT lymphangiography was performed. A popliteal lymph node was injected with iohexol, and images were acquired at 5-minute intervals for 15 minutes. Cats underwent TDL and CCA; methylene blue was used to aid in identifying lymphatic vessels. The CT lymphangiography was repeated immediately after and 30 days after surgery. All cats were euthanized and necropsied.

RESULTS

Results of baseline CT lymphangiography were unremarkable for all 7 cats. Only 5 cats completed the study. Leakage of contrast medium at the level of the cisterna chyli was seen on CT lymphangiography images obtained from all cats immediately after surgery. Evaluation of 30-day postoperative CT lymphangiography images revealed small branches entering the caudal vena cava in 2 cats, leakage of contrast medium into the caudal vena cava with no visible branches in 1 cat, and no contrast medium in the caudal vena cava in 2 cats. Contrast medium did not flow beyond the level of the cisterna chyli in any cat. Gross examination during necropsy revealed that all cats had small lymphatic vessels that appeared to connect to local vasculature identified in the region of the cisterna chyli.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Abdominal lymphaticovenous anastomoses formed after TDL and CCA in cats. This would support use of these procedures for treatment of cats with idiopathic chylothorax, although additional studies with clinically affected cats are warranted.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the closure rate and completeness of closure for a silicone–polyacrylic acid gradual venous occlusion device placed around an intra-abdominal vein to simulate gradual occlusion of an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

ANIMALS 3 purpose-bred cats and 2 purpose-bred dogs.

PROCEDURES The device was surgically placed around an external (cats) or internal (dogs) iliac vein. Computed tomographic angiography was performed at the time of surgery and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery. Ultrasonographic examinations of blood flow through the vein within the device were performed at the time of surgery and at weekly intervals thereafter. Dogs were euthanized 6 weeks after surgery, and the external iliac veins were harvested for histologic examination.

RESULTS The prototype gradual venous occlusion device was successfully placed in all animals, and all animals recovered without complications following the placement procedure. The vessel was completely occluded in 2 cats by 6 weeks after surgery, as determined on the basis of results of CT and ultrasonography; there was incomplete occlusion with a luminal diameter of 1.5 mm in the other cat by 6 weeks after surgery. The vessel was completely occluded in both dogs by 6 weeks after surgery. Histologic examination of the external iliac veins obtained from the dogs revealed minimal inflammation of the vessel wall and no thrombus formation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prototype device induced gradual attenuation of an intra-abdominal vessel over a 6-week period. This device may provide another option for gradual occlusion of extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate long-term outcomes and identify factors associated with death or the need for revision surgery in dogs with permanent tracheostomies (PTs).

DESIGN

Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS

69 client-owned dogs that received a PT between January 2002 and June 2016 at 1 of 4 veterinary teaching hospitals.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and data extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, radiographic and laryngeal examination findings, presence of esophageal abnormalities, date and reason for receiving a PT, postoperative complications, cause of death, and survival time. Dogs surviving < 2 weeks after receiving a PT were excluded.

RESULTS

Major complications occurred in 42 of 69 (61%) dogs, with aspiration pneumonia (13 [19%]), skinfold occlusion (13 [19%]), and stoma stenosis (12 [17%]) being most common. Revision surgery was performed in 24 of 69 (35%) dogs, most commonly because of stoma stenosis or skinfold occlusion (9/24 [38%] each). Brachycephalic dogs were more likely (OR, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 10.2) to require revision surgery than were nonbrachycephalic dogs. The overall median survival time was 1,825 days, and dogs that received corticosteroids before receiving a PT, had tracheal collapse, or were older had shorter survival times.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of the present study indicated that creation of a PT was a viable treatment option for obstructive upper airway diseases in dogs and that long-term survival after receiving a PT was possible; however, a PT may not reduce the risk of aspiration pneumonia in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine long-term outcomes and factors associated with those outcomes in dogs with gastroesophageal intussusception (GEI).

ANIMALS

36 dogs with GEI evaluated at 16 veterinary hospitals from January 2000 through January 2018.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of included dogs were reviewed to collect information regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, blood work and diagnostic imaging results, surgical findings, and outcome. Factors were evaluated for associations with various outcomes.

RESULTS

Median age of dogs with GEI was 13.2 months, and males (72% [26/36]) and German Shepherd Dogs (33% [12/36]) were most common. Vomiting (67% [24/36]) and regurgitation (33% [12/36]) were the most common clinical signs. Ten of 36 (28%) dogs were euthanized without treatment, and 26 (72%) underwent treatment (25 surgically and 1 endoscopically). Twenty-three of the 26 (88%) treated dogs survived to discharge; median survival time was 995 days. At last follow-up, 15 of the 23 (65%) surviving dogs remained alive and 8 (35%) had died for reasons related to persistent regurgitation (n = 6) or reasons unrelated to GEI (2). Of the 10 dogs for which owners were contacted, 7 had persistent regurgitation, the severity of which was reduced through managed feedings. Dogs with acute (≤ 7 days) clinical signs or a previous diagnosis of megaesophagus were more likely to have persistent regurgitation than were dogs without these factors.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Treatment should be considered for dogs with GEI given the high rate of survival to discharge and median survival time. Although persistent regurgitation was common after treatment, a satisfactory outcome was possible with medical management, including managed feedings and medications.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association