OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of various concentrations of collagenase and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on yield of equine adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs) before and after cryopreservation.
SAMPLE Supragluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue from 7 Thoroughbreds.
PROCEDURES Tissues were incubated with digests containing 0.1%, 0.05%, or 0.025% type I collagenase. Part of each resulting stromal vascular fraction was cryopreserved in 80% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% DMSO, and 10% Dulbecco modified Eagle medium F-12 and in 95% FBS and 5% DMSO. Half of each fresh and cryopreserved heterogeneous cell population was not immunophenotyped (unsorted) or was immunophenotyped for CD44+, CD105+, and major histocompatability complex class II (MHCII; CD44+-CD105+-MHCII+ cells and CD44+-CD105+-MHCII− cells). Cell proliferation (cell viability assay), plasticity (CFU frequency), and lineage-specific target gene and oncogene expression (reverse transcriptase PCR assays) were determined in passage 1 cells before and after culture in induction media.
RESULTS Digestion with 0.1% collagenase yielded the highest number of nucleated cells. Cell surface marker expression and proliferation rate were not affected by collagenase concentration. Cryopreservation reduced cell expansion rate and CD44+-CD105+-MHCII− CFUs; it also reduced osteogenic plasticity of unsorted cells. However, effects appeared to be unrelated to DMSO concentrations. There were also variable effects on primordial gene expression among cell isolates.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results supported the use of 0.1% collagenase in an adipose tissue digest and 5% DMSO in cryopreservation medium for isolation and cryopreservation, respectively, of equine ASCs. These results may be used as guidelines for standardization of isolation and cryopreservation procedures for equine ASCs.
To evaluate differentiation of canine adipose–derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs) into ligamentoblasts on tensioned collagen type I (Col1) templates in a perfusion culture system.
Infrapatellar fat pad ASCs from healthy stifle joints of 6 female mixed-breed dogs.
Third-passage ASCs (6 × 106 cells/template) were loaded onto suture-augmented Col1 templates under 15% static strain in perfusion bioreactors. Forty-eight ASC-Col1 constructs were incubated with ligamentogenic (ligamentogenic constructs; n = 24) or stromal medium (stromal constructs; 24) for up to 21 days. Specimens were collected from each construct after 2 hours (day 0) and 7, 14, and 21 days of culture. Cell number, viability, distribution, and morphology; construct collagen content; culture medium procollagen-I-N-terminal peptide concentration; and gene expression were compared between ligamentogenic and stromal constructs.
ASCs adhered to collagen fibers. Cell numbers increased from days 0 to 7 and days 14 to 21 for both construct types. Relative to stromal constructs, cell morphology and extracellular matrix were more mature and collagen content on day 21 and procollagen-I-N-terminal peptide concentration on days 7 and 21 were greater for ligamentogenic constructs. Ligamentogenic constructs had increased expression of the genes biglycan on day 7, decorin throughout the culture period, and Col1, tenomodulin, fibronectin, and tenascin-c on day 21; expression of Col1, tenomodulin, and tenascin-c increased between days 7 and 21.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Ligamentogenic medium was superior to stromal medium for differentiation of ASCs to ligamentoblasts on suture-augmented Col1 scaffolds. Customized ligament neotissue may augment treatment options for dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture.
Objective—To characterize ground reaction forces (GRFs) and determine whether there were correlations between forces and passive coxofemoral joint laxity in puppies.
Animals—Fifty-one 16-week-old hound-breed dogs.
Procedure—Force-plate gait evaluation and distraction radiographic imaging were performed. Ground reaction forces evaluated included x (mediolateral), y (craniocaudal breaking and propulsion), and z (vertical) peak force and impulse. Z-plane limb loading and unloading rates, loading interval, and weight distribution and y-plane stance time breaking and propulsion percentages were calculated. One-way ANOVA with the Duncan multiple range test was used to evaluate differences in gait variables among limbs. The relationships of left, right, highest, and mean distraction index (DI) with individual limb data of each dog were evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation. Left and right DIs were compared by means of linear regression analysis.
Results—Mean ± SEM DI was 0.67 ± 0.02. Left and right DIs were strongly correlated, but there were no significant relationships between DIs and gait variables. Most fore- and hind limb gait variables differed significantly, whereas paired fore- and hind limb gait variables did not. Asymmetry was most pronounced in the x- and y-planes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—GRFs were consistent with those of clinically normal mature dogs, supporting an absence of association between GRF and DI in young dogs. The GRFs and elucidation of the relationship between GRFs and DI may be useful for future studies in immature dogs.
Objective—To evaluate correlations among measurements on radiographic and computed tomography (CT) images with articular cartilage microdamage in lax hip joints of dogs.
Animals—12 adult mixed-breed hounds.
Procedures—Pelvic CT and radiography were performed. Hip joints were harvested following euthanasia. Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) and PennHIP radiograph reports were obtained. Norberg angle (NA) and radiographic percentage femoral head coverage (RPC) were determined. Center-edge angle (CEA), horizontal toit externe angle (HTEA), ventral acetabular sector angle (VASA), dorsal acetabular sector angle (DASA), horizontal acetabular sector angle (HASA), acetabular index (AI), and CT percentage femoral head coverage (CPC) were measured on 2-dimensional CT images. Femoral head–acetabular shelf percentage was measured on sagittal 3-dimensional CT (SCT) and transverse 3-dimensional CT (TCT) images. Light microscopy was used to score joint cartilage. Relationships of OFA confirmation and PennHIP osteoarthritis scores with radiography, CT, and cartilage variables and relationships of cartilage scores with radiography and CT measurements were evaluated with Spearman rank correlations. Pearson correlation was used for relationships of distraction index (DI) with radiography, CT, and cartilage variables.
Results—Significant relationships included PennHIP osteoarthritis score with cartilage score, CEA, HTEA, DASA, AI, CPC, and TCT; OFA confirmation score with cartilage score, NA, RPC, CEA, HTEA, DASA, AI, CPC, and TCT; cartilage score with NA, RPC, CEA, HTEA, DASA, HASA, AI, and TCT; and DI with cartilage score, CEA, HTEA, DASA, HASA, AI, and CPC.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CT appeared to be a valuable imaging modality for predicting cartilage microdamage in canine hip joints.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations of measures assessed by radiography, 2-D CT, and 3-D CT of the hip joints of immature dogs with osteoarthritis in the same joints at maturity.
ANIMALS 46 hound-type dogs from a colony predisposed to osteoarthritis.
PROCEDURES Images of hip joints (1/dog) were obtained at 16, 32, and 104 weeks of age. Radiographic measures included Norberg angle, distraction index, and osteoarthritis score. Two-dimensional CT measures included acetabular index, percentage of femoral head coverage, and center edge, horizontal toit externe, acetabular anteversion, and ventral, dorsal, and horizontal acetabular sector angles. Three-dimensional CT measures were femoral head and neck volume, femoral neck angle, and femoral head and neck radius. Differences among measures at 16 and 32 weeks in dogs with different osteoarthritis scores at later time points, relationships among variables at each time point, and relationships of single and combined measures with the presence of osteoarthritis at 104 weeks were evaluated.
RESULTS The 16- and 32-week distraction index, center edge angle, dorsal acetabular sector angle, horizontal acetabular sector angle, percentage of femoral head coverage, acetabular index, and Norberg angle and the 32-week femoral neck angle varied significantly with osteoarthritis severity at 104 weeks. Presence of osteoarthritis in mature dogs was most strongly associated with 16-week combined measures of distraction index and center edge angle and 32-week combined measures of dorsal acetabular sector angle and Norberg angle.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Changes in hip joint morphology associated with radiographic signs of osteoarthritis were detectable as early as 16 weeks of age and varied with osteoarthritis severity in adult dogs. The use of combined hip joint measures may improve early identification of dogs predisposed to hip joint osteoarthritis.
Objective—To assess relationships of acetabular volume (AV), femoral head volume (FV), and portion of the femoral head within in the acetabulum (FVIA) with each other and with degrees of hip joint laxity and degenerative joint disease from youth to maturity in dogs predisposed to developing hip joint osteoarthritis (OA).
Animals—46 mixed-breed half- or full-sibling hound-type dogs.
Procedures—The distraction index (DI), AV, FV, FVIA, and degree of osteoarthritis (OA score) were quantified in 1 hip joint at 16, 32, and 104 weeks of age. Relationships among variables were evaluated within and between ages. Ratios corresponding to OA scores were compared within ages. Differences among 16-week ratios corresponding to 32-week OA scores and among 16- and 32-week ratios corresponding to 104-week OA scores were evaluated.
Results—Significant positive relationships existed between FV and AV across ages as well as between FVIA/FV and FVIA/AV and between DI and OA score across and within most ages. Such relationships also existed within these variables across most ages. Negative relationships of DI and OA scores with FVIA/FV and FVIA/AV within and among all ages were significant. Sixteen-week AVs, FVs, and FVIAs were greater and FV/AVs and OA scores were less than 32- and 104-week values. The 32-week FVIA/FV was less than 16- and 104-week values, and the 32-week FVIA/AV was less than the 104-week value. The FVIA/FV and FVIA/AV were lower and the DI was higher with higher OA scores within and among most ages.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Structural volumes in lax canine hip joints changed predictably relative to each other during growth, despite degenerative changes. Measures developed in this study may augment current diagnosis and treatment strategies for hip dysplasia in dogs.
To assess the effect of horseshoes with and without traction adaptations on the gait kinetics of nonlame horses during a trot on a concrete runway.
5 nonlame adult light-breed horses.
Kinetic data were obtained for each horse when it was trotted across a force platform within a concrete runway unshod (control) and shod with standard horseshoes; standard horseshoes with high profile–low surface area calks, with low profile–high surface area calks, and coated with a thin layer of tungsten carbide (TLTC); and plastic-steel composite (PSC) horseshoes. Kinetic data were obtained for the control treatment first, then for each of the 5 shoe types, which were applied to each horse in a random order. Kinetic variables were compared among the 6 treatments.
Body weight distribution did not differ among the 6 treatments. Compared with the control, the greatest increase in forelimb peak vertical force was observed when horses were shod with PSC shoes. In the hind limbs, the greatest increase in peak braking force was observed when horses were shod with PSC shoes, followed by the TLTC and low profile–high surface area calked shoes. The PSC shoes yielded the greatest coefficient of friction in both the forelimbs and hind limbs. Stance time was longest when horses were shod with standard shoes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that PSC and TLTC shoes provided the best hoof protection and traction and might be good options for horses that spend a large amount of time traversing paved surfaces.
Case Description—An 18-year-old mare was evaluated for an oral mass that developed after extraction of a broken incisor.
Clinical Findings—An ulcerated, firm, darkly pigmented, approximately 5-cm-diameter spherical mass involved the gingiva lateral and dorsal to the right first to third maxillary incisors. Osteolysis of the roots of the first and second right maxillary incisors and periosteal proliferation of the adjacent premaxilla margins were apparent on radiographs. Histologic examination of the mass revealed multiple coalescing and ramifying foci of abscess formation, each containing a well-defined, discrete, black mass (2 to 7 mm in diameter). Myriad fungal hyphae enmeshed in a black, granular, cementlike material were within each of the black structures. Mycetoma was the histologic diagnosis. The causative agent could not be identified via culture because of lack of distinguishing characteristics. Fungal DNA was isolated from frozen fungal cultures and paraffin sections. The D1/D2 domains of the large subunit P gene rDNA were amplified and sequenced. The sequences of the D1/D2 domains of both isolates were 96% homologous with those of Phialophora oxyspora.
Treatment and Outcome—The mass was surgically excised, the local area curetted, and the wound allowed to heal by second intention. Postoperative treatment consisted of administration of phenylbutazone and IV administration of sodium iodide followed by oral administration of potassium iodide. There was no evidence of recurrence 1 year later.
Clinical Relevance—Mycetomata should be a differential diagnosis for equine gingival masses. Identification of the fungal agent can be critical for selection of optimal treatments. Molecular methods may permit definitive identification when standard phenotypic-based identification criteria are inconclusive.
Objective—To determine risk factors for development
of sequestra in cattle and identify factors associated
with a successful outcome.
Procedure—Medical records of cattle treated at veterinary
teaching hospitals in North America were
reviewed. To determine risk factors for osseous
sequestration, breed, age, and sex of cattle with
osseous sequestration were compared with breed,
age, and sex of all other cattle admitted during the
Results—110 cattle were included in the study. Three
had 2 sequestra; thus, 113 lesions were identified.
Most sequestra were associated with the bones of
the extremities, most commonly the third metacarpal
or third metatarsal bone. Ninety-two animals were
treated surgically (ie, sequestrectomy), 7 were treated
medically, 3 were initially treated medically and
were then treated surgically, and 8 were not treated.
Follow-up information was available for 65 animals
treated surgically and 6 animals treated medically.
Fifty-one (78%) animals treated surgically and 5 animals
treated medically had a successful outcome.
Cattle that were 6 months to 2 years old had a significantly
increased risk of developing a sequestrum,
compared with cattle < 6 months old. Cattle in which
sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of local
anesthesia were significantly more likely to undergo 2
or more surgical procedures than were cattle in which
sequestrectomy was performed with the aid of general
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that sequestrectomy will result in a successful
outcome for most cattle with osseous sequestration.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:376–383)