Objective—To evaluate a modified posterior rhinomanometric method for clinical application in dogs.
Animals—15 healthy Beagles and 8 Bulldogs (4 healthy and 4 with respiratory problems).
Procedures—Rhinomanometry was performed 3 times within a 15-minute period in anesthetized dogs.Transnasal pressure (PNA) and nasal resistance (RNA) were determined by use of artificial airflow (adjusted for body weight) for inspiration (PNAin and RNAin, respectively) and expiration (PNAout and RNAout). Procedures were repeated for the Beagles 7 days later.
Results—For the Beagles, mean ± SD of PNAin for both days (0.162 ± 0.042 kPa) was significantly lower than PNAout (0.183 ± 0.053 kPa). Similarly, RNAin (1.47 ± 0.41 kPa/[L/s]) was significantly lower than RNAout (1.64 ± 0.46 kPa/[L/s]). Pairwise comparison of values for PNA and RNA for the 2 days revealed no significant difference. Repeatability of the method (estimated as within-day variation) for RNA was ± 0.19 kPa/(L/s), whereas variation between the days was ± 0.36 kPa/(L/s) for RNAin and ± 0.44 kPa/(L/s) for RNAout. The 4 clinically normal Bulldogs had RNA values ranging from 1.69 to 3.48 kPa/(L/s), whereas in the 4 Bulldogs with respiratory problems, RNA ranged from 9.83 to 20.27 kPa/(L/s).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—RNA is inversely dependent on body size and nonlinearly associated with airflow. We propose that RNA in dogs should be determined for airflows standardized on the basis of body size. The PNA and RNA in Beagles can be measured with sufficient repeatability for clinical use and nasal obstructions are detectable.
Objective—To identify radiographic abnormalities associated with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) in German Shepherd Dogs (GSDs) and determine whether specific radiographic abnormalities could be used to identify dogs at risk of developing DLSS.
Animals—33 GSDs working as police dogs.
Procedures—Results of physical, neurologic, and orthopedic examinations were used to identify dogs with DLSS. Survey radiography of the lumbosacral junction was performed, and radiographs were compared with radiographs obtained 3 years earlier.
Results—DLSS was diagnosed in 15 of the 33 (45%) dogs. Thirteen of the 15 dogs with DLSS and 14 of the 18 dogs without DLSS had radiographic abnormalities of the lumbosacral junction. Twenty-two (67%) dogs were able to perform unrestricted duties, including 3 dogs with suspected DLSS. Six (18%) dogs had been excluded from active duty during the period of surveillance because of DLSS. Significant progression in specific clinical and radiographic signs was detected, but multiple logistic regression analysis did not identify any radiographic signs that could be used to predict the development of DLSS.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that survey radiography cannot be used to predict development of DLSS in working GSDs.
Objective—To assess the effects of repeated episodes of propofol-associated anesthesia on quality of recovery from anesthesia, clinical status, and erythrocyte physiology in cats.
Animals—37 cats undergoing short-duration anesthesia for radiotherapy.
Procedures—Twice daily on 5 consecutive days, 13 cats with squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum (group 1) underwent anesthesia: first via administration of propofol or a midazolam (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb])-propofol combination and then via administration of ketamine and midazolam each day (latter data were not analyzed). During a 19-day period, 24 cats with vaccineassociated sarcoma (group 2) were anesthetized 12 times with propofol or a midazolam-propofol combination. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol in both groups. Hematologic analysis was performed before, during, and on completion of radiotherapy; changes in Hct and hemoglobin concentration between groups were compared.
Results—Mean duration of anesthesia was 8.1 minutes (range, 5 to 20 minutes); no adverse events were detected during recovery. Total dose of propofol administered did not differ between groups 1 (6.34 mg/kg [2.88 mg/lb]) and 2 (4.71 mg/kg [2.14 mg/lb]). Midazolam administration decreased the propofol dose by 26%. Overall decreases from baseline in Hct and hemoglobin concentration were not significantly different between the 2 groups, nor clinically important; however, compared with baseline, values in group 2 were significantly lower after 6 and 12 anesthetic episodes for both protocols. Heinz bodies were identified in low numbers in both groups during radiotherapy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that repeated propofol-associated short-duration anesthesia does not lead to clinically relevant hematologic changes in cats undergoing short-duration radiotherapy.
Objective—To investigate subjective and computerized
methods of evaluation of color Doppler (CD) and
power Doppler (PD) ultrasonographic images
(obtained before and after administration of contrast
medium) for quantitative assessment of vascularity
and perfusion of various naturally occurring tumors in
Sample Population—34 tumors in 34 dogs.
Procedure—Tumors in dogs were examined via CD
and PD ultrasonography before and after IV injection
of a microbubble contrast agent (pre- and postcontrast
examinations, respectively). Images were digitized
for subjective assessment of vessel density and
vascular pattern and computer-aided assessment of
parameters of vascularity (fractional area [FA]) and
perfusion (color-weighted FA [CWFA] and mean color
Results—With both analysis methods, more vessels
were identified in precontrast PD ultrasonographic
images than in precontrast CD ultrasonographic
images. Moreover, compared with values for precontrast
PD ultrasonography, FA, CWFA, and mean color
level were higher for postcontrast PD ultrasonography.
In postcontrast images, there was a significant
association between vessel densities determined
through subjective and computerized assessments.
Although sample size was small, vascularity of squamous
cell carcinomas was significantly greater than
that of other tumor types. Ten of the 19 soft tissue
sarcomas had low vessel density with minor contrast
enhancement. With increasing gross tumor volume,
FA and CWFA decreased for all Doppler ultrasonographic
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Higher values
of the ultrasonographic parameters representing vascularity
and perfusion of tumors in dogs were determined
via PD ultrasonography after administration of
contrast medium than via PD or CD ultrasonography
without administration of contrast medium. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:21–29)