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Abstract

Objective—To determine and compare the effects of 4 oral replacement therapy (ORT) solutions on acid-base balance, abomasal emptying rate, and plasma volume expansion in calves with naturally acquired diarrhea and moderate dehydration.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—20 calves.

Procedures—20 calves up to 45 days of age were randomly allocated (n = 5/group) to receive 2 L of 1 of 4 treatments via oroesophageal intubation: sodium bicarbonate (150 mmol/L or 300 mmol/L) or sodium acetate (150 mmol/L or 300 mmol/L). The 4 test solutions contained acetaminophen (50 mg/kg [22.7 mg/lb]) and 50 g of glucose monohydrate. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained periodically before and after administration of the ORT solution. Abomasal emptying rate was determined by use of the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration.

Results—Plasma bicarbonate concentration increased more rapidly in calves administered bicarbonate-containing ORT solutions, whereas the rate of systemic alkalinization, as assessed via blood pH, did not differ consistently among treatments. The 300 mmol/L ORT solutions were emptied at a significantly slower rate from the abomasum than 150 mmol/L ORT solutions, with no difference in emptying rate between acetate and bicarbonate-con-taining ORT solutions of similar molality. The 300 mmol/L sodium acetate ORT solution significantly increased plasma volume.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinically important differences in the resuscitative response to 300 mmol/L or 150 mmol/L ORT solutions of sodium acetate or sodium bicarbonate were not identified.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the effects of IV administration of isotonic (1.3%) and hypertonic (8.4%) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions on acid-base status in dehydrated calves with strong ion (metabolic) acidosis.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—50 calves with diarrhea and severe dehydration.

Procedures—Calves were randomly assigned to receive isotonic NaHCO3 solution (65 mL/kg [29.5 mL/lb], IV) over 3 hours (n = 30) or hypertonic NaHCO3 solution (10 mL/kg [4.5 mL/lb], IV) over 20 minutes (20). Blood samples were collected at 0 hours (immediately prior to solution administration) and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours after administration began. Samples were submitted for blood gas analysis, serum biochemical analysis, and determination of blood Na+, K+, and Cl concentrations and percentage change in plasma volume.

Results—Calves that received isotonic NaHCO3 solution had an increase in venous blood pH, HCO3 concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase in Po 2; and no change in Pco 2 within 4 hours after administration began. Calves that received hypertonic NaHCO3 solution had an immediate increase in venous blood pH, HCO3 concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase Pco 2; and no change in Po 2 within 0.5 hours after treatment began. Plasma volume increased to a greater extent following administration of isotonic solution than after administration of hypertonic solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of 8.4% NaHCO3 solution in small volumes provided fast and effective improvement of severe acid-base abnormalities in calves with severe strong ion acidosis but did not improve hydration status as well as administration of a larger volume of isotonic NaHCO3 solution.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the usefulness of intestinal biomarkers in determining the presence of intestinal epithelial damage in neonatal calves with diarrhea caused by 4 etiologic agents.

ANIMALS

40 neonatal calves that were healthy (n = 10) or had diarrhea (30).

PROCEDURES

The study was a cross-sectional study. Results of hematologic analyses and serum concentrations of intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (I-FABP), liver fatty acid–binding protein (L-FABP), trefoil factor 3 (TFF-3), Claudin-3 (CLDN-3), γ-enteric smooth muscle actin (ACTG2), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), interleukin-8 (IL-8), platelet-activating factor (PAF), and leptin (LP) were compared among calves grouped according to whether they were healthy (control group; G-1) or had diarrhea caused by K99 Escherichia coli (G-2; n = 10), bovine rota- or coronavirus (G-3; 5 each), or Cryptosporidium spp (G-4; 10).

RESULTS

Across the 3 time points at which blood samples were obtained and evaluated, the groups of calves with diarrhea generally had markedly higher mean serum concentrations of L-FABP, TFF-3, IAP, IL-8, and LP, compared with the control group. In addition, G-2 also consistently had markedly higher mean serum concentrations of I-FAB and ACTG2 and lower mean serum concentrations of CLDN-3, compared with the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that degree of intestinal epithelial damage differed among calves grouped by the etiologic agent of diarrhea and that such damage might have been more severe in calves with diarrhea caused by K99 E coli. Additionally, our results indicated that serum concentrations of I-FABP, L-FABP, TFF-3, IAP, IL-8, ACTG2, LP, and CLDN-3 were useful biomarkers of intestinal epithelial damage in calves of the present study.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research