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Abstract

Objectives—To assess the sensitivity of the current surveillance program used in Denmark for detecting outbreaks of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) at the herd level and to evaluate the impact of alternative sample collection strategies on the sensitivity of the system in an acceptable time frame.

Sample Population—Data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register on cattle of 24,355 and 25,233 beef herds and on 13,034 and 12,003 dairy herds in the years 2000 and 2001, respectively.

Procedures—Surveillance programs were evaluated under current sample collection conditions and under 3 alternative scenarios by use of simulation modeling. Data from the current detection component of the surveillance system were used as input, taking into consideration the sensitivity and specificity of bulktank milk and serologic testing.

Results—The current system identifies infected dairy herds within a 3-month period with desired accuracy largely because of the test characteristics and number of bulk-tank milk samples. The system is less likely to detect infected beef herds in a timely manner because surveillance in beef herds depends solely on serologic testing at the time of slaughter. The efficiency of surveillance in dairy cattle herds was not decreased substantially when the slaughter-surveillance component was omitted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Geographically targeted sample collection during the high-risk season (winter) was predicted to increase the probability of rapid detection of IBR infection in cattle. This approach can be used for assessing other surveillance systems to determine the best strategies for detection of infected herds. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2149–2153)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the proportion of adult cattle that change test status when an ELISA for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) is used to assay samples collected twice at variable intervals and to determine whether cows with an initial strong positive result were more likely to maintain positive status, compared with all cows with an initial positive result.

Design—Cross-sectional observational study.

Animals—3,757 adult dairy cattle.

Procedure—Serum samples were obtained twice from cattle at intervals ranging from 77 to 600 days between collections. Samples were tested with an ELISA for detection of antibodies to MAP.

Results—Of 157 cattle with initial positive results (value for the sample divided by the value for positivecontrol serum [S/P] ≥ 0.25), 62 (39.5%) had negative results for the second sample. Of 71 cattle with an initial S/P value ≥ 0.40, 13 (18.3%) had a negative result (S/P < 0.25) for the second sample. Of 33 cattle with an initial S/P ≥ 0.70, 3 (9.1%) had a negative result (S/P value < 0.25) for the second sample. Interval between collection of samples did not affect results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Many cows changed ELISA status between samples collected at variable intervals. Cows with an initial high S/P value (≥ 0.70) were more likely to maintain positive status than cows classified as positive on the basis of cutoff values of ≥ 0.25 or ≥ 0.40. Veterinarians should expect variability in ELISA results when repeated testing of cattle is used as part of an MAP control program. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1685–1689)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether logarithmic and polynomial models are superior to simple linear models for predicting reference values for M-mode echocardiographic variables in dogs with a wide range of body weights.

Animals—69 apparently healthy adult male and female dogs of various breeds, ages (range, 1 to 12 years; median, 3.5 years), and body weights (range, 3.9 to 97.7 kg; median, 25.4 kg).

Procedure—Echocardiographic M-mode measurements of the interventricular septum, left ventricular dimension (LVD), left ventricular wall, aorta, and left atrium were obtained. Simple linear, second-order polynomial, third-order polynomial, and logarithmic regression models were determined by use of the least-squares method to describe the relationship between M-mode measurements and body weight. Differences in adjusted R 2 values of logarithmic and polynomial models were tested for significance of contribution, compared with the simple linear model.

Results—Significant differences in adjusted R2 were found when comparing simple linear with logarithmic or polynomial models for LVD-diastole, LVD-systole, aorta, and left atrium. Differences in adjusted R2 between second-order polynomial, third-order polynomial, and logarithmic models were not significant for any M-mode measurement.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, logarithmic or second-order polynomial models predicted reference values of M-mode measurements for size of the cardiac chambers better than simple linear models for dogs with a wide range of body weights. Logarithmic and polynomial models were not superior to simple linear models for M-mode measurements of cardiac wall thickness. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:994–999)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine testing protocols used by board-certified internists and dermatologists for diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) in dogs.

Design—Survey.

Study Population—Board-certified internists and dermatologists.

Procedure—A questionnaire was mailed to 501 specialists to gather information pertaining to diagnosis of HAC.

Results—206 surveys were returned. Only 26% of respondents indicated they would screen a dog for HAC if the dog had only a few laboratory abnormalities consistent with HAC and no clinical signs consistent with the disease; 31% indicated they would not, and 43% indicated they would sometimes. Overall, 55% of respondents indicated they preferred to use the lowdose dexamethasone suppression test for routine screening of dogs suspected to have HAC. However, many respondents indicated they would use a different screening test than usual in particular circumstances. Sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated they would perform a second screening test for confirmation if results of an initial screening test were positive but there were few clinical or laboratory abnormalities consistent with HAC. Most respondents used some sort of test to differentiate pituitary-dependent HAC from HAC secondary to an adrenal tumor (AT), but no 1 test was clearly preferred. Ultrasonography was commonly used, whereas computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were not, even if available.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test is the test most commonly used to screen dogs for HAC but that other tests may be used in certain circumstances. A variety of tests were used to differentiate pituitary-dependent HAC from HAC secondary to an AT. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1643–1649)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Food security is fundamental to human existence, and ensuring global food security is one of the transformative issues of our time. Veterinary academia has a responsibility to respond to this urgent, complex, and daunting challenge, especially because solutions will not be realized without the active engagement of the developed world's veterinary medical profession and the modernization of public and private veterinary services throughout the developing world.

A recent report from the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services 1 warns that the world's land and water resources are being exploited at unprecedented rates and that this exploitation, combined

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To develop a syndromic surveillance system based on visual inspection from outside the livestock pens that could be used for detection of disease among livestock entering an auction market.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—All livestock (beef and dairy cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and pigs) entering a single auction market in Colorado during 30 business days.

Procedures—Livestock were enumerated and visually inspected for clinical signs of disease by a veterinarian outside the pens, and clinical signs that were observed were categorized into 12 disease syndromes. Frequency of clinical signs and disease syndromes was then calculated.

Results—Data were recorded for a total of 29,371 animal observation days. For all species combined, the most common disease syndrome was respiratory tract disease (218.9 observations/10,000 animal observation days), followed by thin body condition and abnormal ambulation or posture (80.7 and 27.2 observations/10,000 animal observation days, respectively). Together, these 3 disease syndromes accounted for 92.8% of all clinical signs of disease observed. The syndromes least commonly identified were non–injury-related hemorrhage, death, and injury-related hemorrhage (0.0, 0.3, and 0.7 observations/10,000 animal observation days, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a syndromic surveillance system based on visual inspection alone could be developed to identify possible disease conditions among livestock at an auction market. Further studies are needed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of visual observation in detecting disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate factors potentially associated with fecal Salmonella shedding among equine patients hospitalized for colic at a veterinary teaching hospital and to determine the effects of probiotic treatment on fecal Salmonella shedding and clinical signs.

Design—Longitudinal study and controlled trial.

Animals—246 equine colic patients.

Procedure—History and medical information were obtained from patient records. Fecal and environmental samples were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture for Salmonella enterica. Fifty-one patients were treated with a commercially available probiotic; 46 were treated with a placebo. Logistic regression was used to evaluate data.

ResultsSalmonella organisms were detected in feces from 23 (9%) patients at least once during hospitalization. Patients were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms if diarrhea was evident ≤ 6 hours after hospitalization and duration of hospitalization exceeded 8 days (odds ratio [OR], 20.3), laminitis developed during hospitalization (OR, 12.0), results of nasogastric intubation were abnormal (OR, 4.9), leukopenia was evident ≤ 6 hours after hospitalization (OR, 4.6), or travel time to the teaching hospital exceeded 1 hour (OR, 3.5). Horses treated with the probiotic did not differ from control horses in regard to likelihood of fecal Salmonella shedding (OR, 1.5) or prevalence of clinical signs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that certain risk factors are associated with fecal shedding of S enterica among equine patients hospitalized at a veterinary teaching hospital because of colic and that pathogen monitoring in patients and the hospital environment and use of barrier nursing precautions for equine colic patients are beneficial. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:740–748)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

At the Group of Eight (G8) Summit in L'Aquila, Italy, in July 2009, the leaders of the world's largest economies committed to “act with the scale and urgency needed to achieve sustainable global food security.” The statement was precipitated by spikes in food prices, a rising incidence of hunger in 2008, a realization that price spikes are likely to recur, and an understanding that global food security is among the most formidable challenges facing all of humankind in the 21st century. This urgent global challenge will require a dramatic and coordinated effort by multiple stakeholders, including a crucial role for

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in American Journal of Veterinary Research