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Abstract

Objectives—To assess the sensitivity of the current surveillance program used in Denmark for detecting outbreaks of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) at the herd level and to evaluate the impact of alternative sample collection strategies on the sensitivity of the system in an acceptable time frame.

Sample Population—Data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register on cattle of 24,355 and 25,233 beef herds and on 13,034 and 12,003 dairy herds in the years 2000 and 2001, respectively.

Procedures—Surveillance programs were evaluated under current sample collection conditions and under 3 alternative scenarios by use of simulation modeling. Data from the current detection component of the surveillance system were used as input, taking into consideration the sensitivity and specificity of bulktank milk and serologic testing.

Results—The current system identifies infected dairy herds within a 3-month period with desired accuracy largely because of the test characteristics and number of bulk-tank milk samples. The system is less likely to detect infected beef herds in a timely manner because surveillance in beef herds depends solely on serologic testing at the time of slaughter. The efficiency of surveillance in dairy cattle herds was not decreased substantially when the slaughter-surveillance component was omitted.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Geographically targeted sample collection during the high-risk season (winter) was predicted to increase the probability of rapid detection of IBR infection in cattle. This approach can be used for assessing other surveillance systems to determine the best strategies for detection of infected herds. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2149–2153)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

Food animal veterinarians recognize the need to economically justify their recommendations regarding whole-herd management programs. An enterprise analysis technique may be used by veterinarians to determine the actual cost of production on beef cattle operations. Enterprise analysis was used on 2 groups of cattle to demonstrate the financial impact of a recommendation to modify the winter-supplementation program of a large ranch. Pregnancy rates improved from 62 to 95% for group-1 cattle and from 75 to 94% for 2 groups of cattle in the 2-year study. Additionally, the calving cycle was shortened and the number of calves born earlier in the calving season was notably increased, which raised the total pounds of calves sold at weaning. These outcomes were realized without additional winter-supplementation expenses for either group. Veterinarians can use enterprise analysis to determine the value of their recommendations, thus allowing them to charge more appropriately for the services provided.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the validity of a 5-antigen ELISA for detection of tuberculosis in cattle and Cervidae.

Design

Cross-sectional observational study.

Sample Population

Serum samples collected from 5,304 cattle in 23 herds and 1,441 Cervidae in 12 herds.

Procedure

Discriminant analysis was used to determine the linear combination of antigens that accurately predicted the true Mycobacterium bovis infection status of the most animals. The resulting classification functions then were used to calculate the percentage of animals that were correctly classified (ie, sensitivity and specificity). The kappa statistic was calculated to evaluate different combinations of test results,

Results

Of the 23 cattle herds, 4 dairy and 2 beef herds were considered infected. Of the 12 Cervidae herds, 5 were considered infected. For cattle, the specificity and sensitivity of ELISA, using the discriminant function, were 56.4 and 65.6%, respectively. For Cervidae, the specificity and sensitivity of ELISA, using the discriminant function, were 78.6 and 70.0%, respectively.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that the 5- antigen ELISA would not be a good test for tuberculosis, especially in cattle, if used alone. However, when results of the ELISA and tuberculin test were interpreted in parallel, sensitivity of the combination was greater than sensitivity of either test alone. Similarly, when results of the 2 tests were interpreted in series, specificity of the combination was greater than specificity of either test alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 209:962-966)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether apparently resting dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies have increased resting energy expenditure (REE), compared with clinically normal dogs.

Animals

46 client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies and 30 client-owned dogs that were clinically normal.

Procedure

Apparently resting, client-owned dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies before (n = 46) and 4 to 6 weeks after (n = 30) surgical removal of tumors were compared with apparently resting, clinically normal, client-owned dogs (n = 30). An open flow indirect calorimetry system was used to determine the following: rate of oxygen consumption (ml/min/kg of body weight); rate of carbon dioxide production (mls/min/kg), REE (kcal/kg/d), and respiratory quotient. Because of the wide range of body weight, REE and oxygen consumption were also expressed per kg of body weight0.75.

Results

Surgical removal of the tumor did not significantly alter any of the variables measured when all dogs with tumors were assessed as a single group, or when the dogs were divided on the basis of having the following types of tumors: carcinomas and sarcomas, osteosarcomas, and mammary adenocarcinomas. None of the data obtained prior to surgical treatment from any of the dogs grouped by tumor type were significantly different from clinically normal dogs.

Conclusions

REE (54.4 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 125 ± 19 kcal/kg0.75/d) and, presumably, caloric requirements of dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies are not significantly different from those obtained from clinically normal dogs (53.9 ± 16 kcal/kg/d or 116 ± 32 kcal/kg0.75/d). Furthermore, these variables do not change significantly when the tumor is excised and the dog is reassessed after 4 to 6 weeks.

Clinical Relevance

Knowledge that REE in dogs with solid tumors is not significantly different from REE of clinically normal dogs may be of value when planning nutritional treatment for dogs with nonhematopoietic malignancies. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1463-1467)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine financial impact of an outbreak of vesicular stomatitis in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado.

Design

Survey and financial analysis.

Sample Population

16 ranchers whose beef herds were affected by the 1995 outbreak.

Procedure

Information concerning financial effects during the outbreak year was collected by personal interview of each rancher and examination of financial records.

Results

Affected herds ranged from 79 to 956 cows (mean, 345). Cow case-fatality rates ranged from 0 to 80%, with calf case-fatality rates ranging from 0 to 28% and overall case-fatality rates of 0 to 15%. Median financial loss was $7,818/ranch and mean financial loss was $15,565/ranch, excluding total financial losses associated with sale of calves. Primary financial losses for these beef herds were attributed to increased culling rates, death of pregnant cows, loss of income from calves, and costs for additional labor during the outbreak. Some costs were attributable to a decrease in market price for beef and a drought during the year after the outbreak.

Clinical Implications

Financial losses for an out-break of vesicular stomatitis can be attributed to effects of the disease and costs associated with imposed quarantines. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:820-823)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association