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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate clearance, antibody responses, potential shedding, and histologic lesions in reproductive tissues of adult bison bulls after vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

Animals

61 two- and 3-year-old bison bulls.

Procedure

12 bison bulls were vaccinated SC with B abortus strain RB51, 3 were inoculated SC with 0.15M NaCI, and antibody responses were evaluated. Various specimens were obtained to evaluate bacterial shedding. Four vaccinates and 1 control were necropsied 10, 20, and 30 weeks after vaccination. In a separate experiment, bison bulls were vaccinated SC with 0.15M NaCI, or by hand or ballistically with strain RB51. Antibody responses were monitored 6 weeks after vaccination and during necropsy 13 weeks after vaccination. Tissue specimens obtained during necropsy from both studies were evaluated bacteriologically and histologically.

Results

Strain RB51 was recovered at various times from semen of 3 of 12 vaccinated bison bulls in experiment 1. During necropsy, strain RB51 was recovered 10 and 20, but not 30, weeks after vaccination. In experiment 2, strain RB51 was recovered from lymphoid tissues of hand- and ballistic-vaccinated bison bulls during necropsy. In both experiments, microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, and seminal vesicles were minimal and did not differ between strain RB51-vaccinated and saline-inoculated bison bulls.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Strain RB51 does not induce relevant inflammatory lesions in reproductive tissues of adult bison bulls. Shedding of strain RB51 in semen may be transient in some bison bulls; however, the importance of this observation is unknown. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:905–908)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To establish that female calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 at 3, 5, and 7 months of age are protected against infection and abortion when challenged exposed during their first pregnancy.

Animals

Polled Hereford heifer calves obtained from a brucellosis-free herd.

Procedure

Calves were inoculated SC at 3, 5, or 7 months of age with strain RB51 (n = 26), strain 19 (n = 16), or sterile saline solution (n = 15). Calves were bred at 16 to 17 months of age and challenged exposed during the first pregnancy with virulent B abortus strain 2308.

Results

After vaccination, none of the heifers given strain RB51 developed serum antibodies that reacted in the standard tube agglutination test, but reacted in a dotblot assay, using RB51 antigen. B abortus was cultured from biopsy specimens of superficial cervical lymph nodes in the RB51 and S19 vaccinates at 10 weeks, but not at 12 weeks after vaccination. All 4 heifers that had been vaccinated with RB51 at 3 months of age were protected against infection and abortion when challenged exposed. Vaccination at 5 and 7 months of age gave equivalent protection. Heifers given strain 19 were 95% protected and controls (given saline solution) had a high incidence of infection and abortion.

Conclusions

Strain RB51 is protective at doses comparable to those of strain 19 in calves 3 to 10 months of age.

Clinical Relevance

Immunogenicity and failure to induce antibodies that interfere with the serologic diagnosis of field infections of B abortus make strain RB51 an effective vaccine. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1153—1156)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the ability of Brucella abortus strain RB51 to induce placentitis and abortion in bison after SC vaccination.

Animals

10 pregnant bison cows, 3 to 10 years old and at 3 to 8 months' gestation.

Procedure

Pregnant bison cows on a Montana ranch were vaccinated SC with 109 colony-forming units of B abortus strain RB51. Two cows, identified prior to the study, were euthanatized and examined 5 weeks after vaccination to obtain optimal histologic samples of placenta. Other cows were euthanatized and examined after abortion. After euthanasia, tissue specimens were collected for histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation. Tissue and fluid specimens for bacteriologic culture were also collected during necropsy.

Results

Of 8 cows, 2 aborted at 68 and 107 days after vaccination. Aborting cows had endometritis. Strain RB51 was isolated from reproductive tissues and supramammary lymph nodes. Fetal lesions were not seen; however, fetal bronchial lymph nodes and amniotic fluid contained strain RB51. Cows examined 5 weeks after vaccination had placentitis and endometritis, with numerous bacteria within trophoblastic epithelial cells that were immunoreactive for strain RB51 antigen. Strain RB51 was isolated from placentomes and numerous lymph nodes. Fetal lesions were not seen 5 weeks after vaccination; however, strain RB51 was isolated from numerous lymph nodes and lung, allantoic fluid, and rectal swab specimens.

Conclusions

The vaccine candidate B abortus RB51 has tropism for the bison placenta, and can cause placentitis, which induces abortion in pregnant bison. The vaccine dose used was similar to that being tested in cattle, but may not be appropriate for pregnant bison. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1604–1607)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of tuberculosis caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cervids on privately owned ranches in northeastern lower Michigan.

Design—Epidemiologic survey.

Animals—Cervids on 96 privately owned ranches.

Procedures—A combination of slaughter and skin tuberculin testing was used to collect data. Infection with M bovis was confirmed by use of standard necropsy and bacteriologic culture techniques.

Results—Cervids with tuberculosis were detected on 1 of the 96 ranches. The apparent prevalence of tuberculosis in cervids from the 96 ranches was 1.1 cases/100 cervids (21 cases/1,867 cervids tested). For the ranch with infected cervids, prevalence of infection with M bovis was 12.1 cases/100 cervids (21 cases/174 cervids tested). No obvious gross lesions were seen in 8 of 21 white-tailed deer and 1 coyote with culture-confirmed M bovis infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The lack of visible lesions in a substantial proportion of infected animals should be taken into consideration in studies involving detection and prevalence of tuberculosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:656–659)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association