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Summary

Biological and biochemical characteristics of the leukotoxin of Fusobacterium necrophorum were determined. Culture supernatant of F necrophorum was toxic to polymorphonuclear neutrophilic, leukocytes from cattle and sheep, but not to those from pigs and rabbits. Culture supernatant and sonicated bacterial cell fractions had low hemolytic activity and did not cause dermonecrosis in a guinea pig. Supernatant derived leukotoxin was inactivated at 56 C for 5 minutes and became unstable at pH > 7.8 or < 6.6. Chemical treatment with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.25% sodium deoxycholate, 5.2% sodium sulfide, or 0.25 mM titanium (III) citrate markedly decreased leukotoxicity. Enzymatic treatment with protease, trypsin, and chymotrypsin inactivated the toxin completely, whereas amylase had no effect. Use of protease inhibitors failed to prevent loss of leukotoxin activity. Using membrane partition chromatography and gel filtration, the estimated molecular weight of the toxin was > 300,000. On reduction and denaturation, the toxin dissociated into several components by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The proximal portion of the femur was evaluated as a source of autogenous cancellous bone in dogs. Bilateral oval cortical defects were created in the lateral subtrochanteric area of the femur in 16 dogs. Cancellous bone was removed and the weight recorded. Cancellous bone was similarly harvested from the proximal portion of the humerus in 7 of these dogs. Subtrochanteric femoral defects in 11 dogs were randomly assigned to receive cancellous bone graft obtained from the femur (n = 4) or the humerus (n = 7). Subtrochanteric defects in 5 dogs were not grafted. Radiographic assessment of subtrochanteric defects was performed at 4-week intervals, and histologic assessment at 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after surgery. Non-grafted donor sites healed by ingrowth of trabecular bone during the first 12 weeks after surgery. By week 24, the lateral cortical wall had reformed, but remodeling was incomplete. Donor sites grafted with cancellous bone healed similarly, but with more rapid healing and more complete remodeling evident by week 24. Although the mean weight of cancellous bone harvested from the proximal portion of the femur (0.82 ± 0.22 g) was significantly (P < 0.05) less than that harvested from the proximal portion of the humerus (1.38 ± 0.29 g), there was no qualitative histologic or radiographic difference in bony healing of grafted defects. We determined that the proximal portion of the femur can be safely used to provide moderate amounts of cancellous bone, and that a second bone graft can be collected from the same subtrochanteric donor site after 12 weeks.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Renal electrolyte and net acid excretion were characterized during generation and maintenance of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in a ruminant model. Two phases of renal response with regard to sodium and net acid excretion were documented. An initial decrease in net acid excretion was attributable to increase in bicarbonate excretion with associated increase in sodium excretion. As the metabolic disturbance became more advanced, a second phase of renal excretion was observed in which sodium and bicarbonate excretion were markedly decreased, leading to increase in net acid excretion and development of aciduria. Throughout the metabolic disturbance, chloride excretion was markedly decreased; potassium excretion also decreased. These changes were accompanied by increase in plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations. There was apparent failure to concentrate the urine optimally during the course of the metabolic disturbance, despite increasing plasma concentration of antidiuretic hormone.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To examine, in horses, the disposition and excretion of the active metabolite 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA) of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory prodrug nabumetone.

Design

Pharmacokinetic analysis of 6MNA after oral administration of nabumetone and IV administration of 6MNA.

Procedure

Using a crossover design, 5 horses were orally administered 3.7 mg of nabumetone/kg of body weight. After a 3-week washout period, 4 horses were administered 2.5 mg of 6MNA/kg, IV.

Results

Absorption of nabumetone from the gastrointestinal tract and its metabolism to 6MNA had a median appearance half-life of 0.88 hour. The elimination half-life was 11 hours. Area under the plasma concentration time curve for 6MNA after oral administration of nabumetone was 120.6 mg/h/L. A dose of 2.5 mg/kg of 6MNA administered IV resulted in plasma concentration nearly equivalent to that induced by the orally administered dose. Disposition of 6MNA was modeled as a one-compartment, first-order elimination. The area under the plasma concentration time curve for IV administration of 6MNA was 117.0 mg/h/L, and the specific volume of distribution was 0.247 L/kg. The distribution half-life and the elimination half-life were 0.56 and 7.90 hours, respectively. Percentage of total dose recovered in urine for the 36-hour collection period after the oral and IV administrations was 7.4 and 5.3%, respectively.

Conclusions

Metabolism of nabumetone to 6MNA, as reported in other species, also occurs in horses. There were a number of additional metabolites of nabumetone in urine that could not be fully identified and characterized. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:517–521)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Nineteen axial pattern skin flaps were used in 16 dogs and cats to provide skin for repair of extensive cutaneous defects. Retrospective evaluation of medical records was used to determine percentage flap survival, postoperative complications, and long-term outcome of axial pattern skin flaps. The most common indication for use of axial pattern flaps was to augment wound closure following tumor resection (n = 7). Other indications included trauma (n = 5), chronic nonhealing wounds (n = 4), urine-induced cellulitis (n = 1), idiopathic dermal necrosis (n = 1), and chronic lymphoplasmocytic dermatitis (n = 1). Mean flap survival (± sd) was 96% (± 8). Postoperative complications included wound drainage (n = 15), partial dehiscence of the sutured flap (n = 7), distal flap necrosis (n = 6), infection (n = 3), edema (n = 3), and seroma formation (n = 2). After a median follow-up time of 5 months, evaluation of animals indicated that surgery provided successful wound reconstruction with good cosmetic results. Reconstruction of large cutaneous defects is facilitated by axial pattern flap application regardless of cause of wound. Postoperative complications are common but amenable to standard wound management techniques such as drain placement and surgical debridement of devitalized distal flap skin.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary:

The effects of propofol on anesthetic induction were evaluated in 40 dogs anesthetized with isoflurane. Propofol is a rapidly acting, nonbarbiturate drug that induces anesthesia of ultrashort duration with iv administration. Four preanesthetic regimens were used: anesthesia without preanesthetic drugs; or with preanesthetic administration of acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg of body weight, im), diazepam (0.2 mg/kg, iv), or acepromazine (0.02 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg) im. Heart rate, systolic arterial blood pressure (sap), respiration, quality of induction and recovery, and adverse effects were recorded. Intravenous propofol administration induced a variable period of apnea in 34 of 40 dogs. Cyanosis (in 2 dogs) and signs of pain on injection (in 3 dogs) were infrequently observed during induction. One dog developed ventricular premature depolarizations after propofol administration. Venous CO2 tension increased and pH decreased immediately after propofol administration, regardless of preanesthetic regimen. The sap significantly (P < 0.05) decreased after propofol administration in dogs treated with acepromazine (sap, 178 mm of Hg before vs 128 mm of Hg after propofol) and with acepromazine/butorphanol (sap, 184 mm of Hg before vs 98 mm of Hg after propofol). When used for induction, propofol induces anesthetic-related adverse effects, some of which can be minimized by preanesthetic medication. Recovery characteristics varied with preanesthetic medication, independent of propofol administration.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

An elisa was developed and tested to detect antibodies to Eperythrozoon suis in swine. Results were compared with those of the indirect hemagglutination (iha) test. Antigen isolated from swine heavily infected with E suis was used for both tests. Comparison of the elisa with the iha test revealed a significant (P < 0.001) correlation between results. Of 114 samples obtained from 9 swine infected with E suis, 87.7% were seropositive (titer ≥ 200) via the elisa, and 80.7% were seropositive (titer ≥ 20) via the iha test. The sensitivity of the elisa was greater than that of the iha test. All blood samples obtained from specific-pathogen-free swine tested negative for E suis antibody. Cross-reactions were not observed between E suis antigen and antisera against various swine and cattle disease agents using elisa. We concluded that the elisa may be used for rapid and effective diagnosis of infection with E suis in swine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Five adult 40- to 50-kg female sheep were surgically fitted with a reentrant cannulae placed in the proximal part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. By diversion of abomasal outflow, this model has been shown to produce hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis accompanied by dehydration, hypokalemia, and hyponatremia. Each sheep was subjected to 3 separate, 12-hour iv treatment trials, in each case preceded by a control period of 48 hours, and a diversion period of 36 to 96 hours, during which a hypochloremic (Cl ≤ 60 ± 2 mEq/L) metabolic alkalosis with hypokalemia and hyponatremia was produced.

Treatment 1, consisting of 6 L of isotonic Na gluconate, was designed to replace volume without replenishing the Cl deficit. Although hydration improved, plasma Cl decreased further, and the sheep became increasingly weak and depressed. Treatment 2, consisting of 2 L of 1.8% NaCl, was designed to replace the Cl deficit without replacing total volume. Plasma Na+ and Cl concentrations returned to normal during the 12 hours of treatment; acid-base balance and plasma K+ concentrations returned to normal within 36 hours of treatment. During treatment 3 (control, no treatment), measured metabolic values changed minimally. We concluded that the iv replacement of Cl without K+ is effective in the correction of experimentally induced hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in sheep.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis accompanied by hypokalemia and hyponatremia was induced experimentally in 7 adult sheep by diversion (loss) of gastric contents through an Ivan and Johnston cannula placed in the cranial part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. Cannula placement was easily accomplished, and cannulae were tolerated well by the sheep. Volume of effluent produced during the 60- to 120-hour period of diversion ranged from 7.7 to 14.9 L and tended to be greatest during the first 24 hours. All sheep became dehydrated, with mean pcv and plasma total protein concentration increases of 94.2 and 61.7%, respectively. Plasma chloride concentration decreased in linear fashion from a prediversion mean of 113 mEq/L (range, 111 to 117 mEq/L) to an end-point mean of 54 mEq/L (range, 45 to 65 mEq/L). Plasma sodium and potassium concentrations also decreased, though potassium concentration increased terminally. There were rapid increases in arterial blood pH and bicarbonate and base excess concentrations during the first 48 hours after diversion. However, during the final stages of diversion, sheep developed superimposed metabolic acidosis with increased plasma lactate concentration and high anion gap.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research