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  • Author or Editor: M. L. Samuels x
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Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with development of small colon impaction in horses and with selection of medical versus surgical treatment and to determine the prognosis for affected horses following medical or surgical management.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—44 horses with primary impaction of the small colon.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical findings, treatment (medical vs surgical), hospitalization time, and outcome. For comparison purposes, the same information was collected for 83 horses with primary impaction of the large colon.

Results—Diarrhea was the only factor found to be associated with development of small colon impaction. Horses with small colon impaction were 10.8 times as likely to have diarrhea at the time of initial examination as were horses with large colon impaction. Abdominal distension was the only factor associated with use of surgical versus medical treatment. Horses with small colon impaction that were treated surgically were 5.2 times as likely to have had abdominal distension at the time of admission as were horses with small colon impaction that were treated medically. Overall, 21 of 23 (91%) horses treated medically and 20 of 21 (95%) horses treated surgically survived to discharge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that diarrhea may be a risk factor for development of small colon impaction and that horses with small colon impaction that have abdominal distension at the time of initial examination are more likely to require surgical than medical treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution administered IV to induce diuresis on 15 dimensional variables of the kidneys, size of renal pelvis, and diameter of the cranial part of the ureters.

Animals

25 dogs without evidence of renal disease that were undergoing chemotherapy for various neoplasms.

Procedure

The kidneys, cranial aspect of the ureters, and trigone area of the urinary bladder of each dog were examined ultrasonographically before and during IV administration of saline solution (2.7 to 18.8 ml/kg of body weight/h).

Results

Ultrasonography revealed unilateral and bilateral pyelectasis during diuresis in 16 of 23 (70%) dogs but unilateral pyelectasis in only 1 dog before diuresis. Unilateral pyelectasis during diuresis was observed in 11 of 16 (69%) dogs. Pyelectasis during diuresis was categorized as slight in 15 of 21 (71%) kidneys. Degree of pyelectasis during diuresis was not identical in both kidneys of 13 of 16 (81%) dogs. Diuresis did not induce ureterectasis, and it did not cause changes in 15 dimensional variables of the kidneys.

Conclusions

In nonsedated, nonazotemic dogs, IV administration of saline solution to induce diuresis may cause slight pyelectasis without evidence of ureterectasis.

Clinical Relevance

When dilatation of the cranial part of the ureter is > 2 mm at the same time that ipsilateral pyelectasis is detected during ultrasonographic examination of the urinary tract system of a nonsedated, nonazotemic dog receiving IV administration of saline solution to induce diuresis, additional examinations are recommended to determine the possibility of early obstructive nephropathy or pyelonephritis. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:405-409)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effect of the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, on gastric fluid pH was investigated in 4 ponies. Gastric fluid pH was determined after sc administration of octreotide or physiologic saline solution (control). A baseline sample of fluid was obtained, the agent was given, and 8 additional samples were collected hourly. Administration of octreotide at all dosages tested (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 μg/kg of body weight) increased gastric pH to > 5.0. Baseline values were consistently < 2.7. Administration of octreotide at these same dosages induced gastric pH values > 4.0 for 2.4 ± 1.2, 4.8 ± 0.8, 5.7 ± 1.3, and 5.4 ± 2.6 (mean ± sd) continuous hours, respectively. Treatment at all dosages increased the pH of gastric fluid, compared with control values. The duration of the increase in pH was significantly (P < 0.05) different than that of the control treatment, even for the lowest dosage, 0.1 μg/kg.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography and MRI for diagnosing medial meniscal lesions in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency.

DESIGN Diagnostic test evaluation.

ANIMALS 26 dogs (31 stifle joints) with CCL deficiency.

PROCEDURES A single surgeon physically examined each dog and performed ultrasonography and arthroscopy of affected stifle joints to identify medial meniscal lesions. Video recordings of the arthroscopic procedure were saved and subsequently reviewed by the same surgeon and by a second surgeon working independently and blinded to results of all examinations. A radiologist blinded to results of all examinations evaluated MRI scans of the affected joints. Correct classification rate (CCR), sensitivity, and specificity of ultrasonography and MRI were calculated twice, with each of the 2 surgeons' arthroscopic assessments used as the reference standard.

RESULTS Compared with arthroscopic examination by the unblinded surgeon, ultrasonography had a CCR of 90%, sensitivity of 95% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73% to 100%), and specificity of 82% (95% CI, 48% to 97%). For MRI, these values were 84%, 75% (51% to 90%), and 100% (68% to 100%), respectively. Compared with arthroscopic assessment by the blinded surgeon, ultrasonography had a CCR of 84%, sensitivity of 86% (95% CI, 64% to 96%), and specificity of 78% (95% CI, 40% to 96%). For MRI, these values were 77%, 68% (45% to 82%), and 100% (63% to 100%), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These data suggested imperfect performance but clinical usefulness of both ultrasonography and MRI for diagnosing medial meniscal lesions in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogels were tested for oral delivery of a vaccine against Pasteurella haemolytica infection in cattle. Culture supernatants of P haemolytica, the most common bacterium associated with pneumonia in cattle, were used as the antigens in the vaccine. Hydrogels containing culture supernatants were administered orally to calves. Calves were then challenge-exposed with virulent P haemolytica. Calves were euthanatized 3 days after challenge exposure. The lungs of each calf were scored for severity and size of pneumonic lesions. Results indicated that vaccinated calves had smaller, less severe pneumonic lesions and lived longer than nonvaccinated calves. These results indicated that hydrogels can be used to deliver vaccines orally to calves to enhance resistance to pneumonia caused by P haemolytica.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify any adverse effects on health or performance in young dairy calves fed clinoptilolite mixed with milk replacer.

Animals—26 male Holstein calves (1 to 7 days old).

Procedures—Twice daily for 28 days, calves were fed milk replacer with no clinoptilolite (control group; n = 8), 0.5% clinoptilolite (low-dosage group; 9), or 2% clinoptilolite (high-dosage group; 9); each calf consumed approximately 12% of its body weight (based on the replacer solids in the milk replacer mixture)/d. For each calf, subjective health assessments, weight and rectal temperature measurements, and CBC and serum biochemical analyses were performed at intervals. All calves underwent necropsy.

Results—2 calves were euthanized during the experiment because of bronchopneumonia or enteritis. Body weight and average daily gain did not differ among treatment groups. The percentage of monocytes and serum total protein concentration in the low-dosage group were higher than values in the control and high-dosage groups. Compared with values for either clinoptilolite-treated group, BUN concentration was greater in the control group. Serum globulin concentration differed significantly among groups (2.77, 2.50, and 2.36 g/dL in the low-dosage, control, and high-dosage groups, respectively). At necropsy, gross lesions associated with clinoptilolite treatment were not detected in any of the calves.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Even under stressful conditions, clinoptilolite fed at low or high dosages did not affect the performance of dairy calves and had no negative effect on WBC count and blood metabolite concentrations and enzyme activities. Clinoptilolite ingestion was not associated with treatment-specific gross changes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the genetic influence on expression of traits associated with canine hip dysplasia.

Animals—193 dogs from an experimental canine pedigree.

Procedure—An experimental canine pedigree was developed for linkage analysis of hip dysplasia by mating dysplastic Labrador Retrievers with nondysplastic Greyhounds. A statistical model was designed to test the effects of Labrador Retriever and Greyhound alleles on age at detection of femoral capital epiphyseal ossification, 8-month distraction index, and 8-month dorsolateral subluxation score.

Results—The additive effect was significant for age at detection of femoral capital epiphyseal ossification. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates (± SD) for this trait were 6.4 ± 1.95, 10.2 ± 2.0, 10.8 ± 3.1, 11.4 ± 2.1, and 13.6 ± 4.6 days of age for Greyhounds, Greyhound backcross dogs, F1 dogs, Labrador Retriever backcross dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. The additive effect was also significant for the distraction index. Estimates for this trait were 0.21 ± 0.07, 0.29 ± 0.15, 0.44 ± 0.12, 0.52 ± 0.18, and 0.6 ± 0.17 for the same groups, respectively. For the dorsolateral subluxation score, additive and dominance effects were significant. Estimates for this trait were 73.5 ± 4.1, 71.3 ± 6.5, 69.1 ± 6.0, 50.6 ± 12.9, and 48.4 ± 7.7%, respectively, for the same groups.

Conclusions—In this canine pedigree, traits associated with canine hip dysplasia are heritable. Phenotypic differences exist among founder dogs of each breed and their crosses. This pedigree should be useful for identification of quantitative trait loci underlying the dysplastic phenotype. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63: 1029–1035)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To estimate the number of dogs required to find linkage to heritable traits of hip dysplasia in dogs from an experimental pedigree.

Animals—147 Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, and their crossbreed offspring.

Procedure—Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia were crossed with unaffected Greyhounds. Age at detection of femoral capital ossification, distraction index (DI), hip joint dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score, and hip joint osteoarthritis (OA) were recorded. Power to find linkage of a single marker to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling 100% of the variation in a dysplastic trait in the backcross dogs was determined.

Results—For the DI at the observed effect size, recombination fraction of 0.05, and heterozygosity of 0.75, 35 dogs in the backcross of the F1 to the Greyhound generation would yield linkage at a power of 0.8. For the DLS score, 35 dogs in the backcross to the Labrador Retriever generation would be required for linkage at the same power. For OSS, 45 dogs in the backcross to the founding Labrador Retrievers would yield linkage at the same power. Fewer dogs were projected to be necessary to find linkage to hip OA. Testing for linkage to the DLS at 4 loci simultaneously, each controlling 25% of the phenotypic variation, yielded an overall power of 0.7.

Conclusions and Clinical Significance—Based on this conservative single-marker estimate, this pedigree has the requisite power to find microsatellites linked to susceptibility loci for hip dysplasia and hip OA by breeding a reasonable number of backcross dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;222:418–424)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research