Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for

  • Author or Editor: M. L. Frey x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search


The infectivity and pathogenicity of selected bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) isolates were determined in gnotobiotic, colostrum-deprived neonatal lambs. Five-day-old cesarean-derived gnotobiotic lambs were exposed to 1 of 10 bvdv. isolates via aerosol suspension. These isolates were from tissues or secretions of calves or lambs affected with respiratory tract disease, weak neonatal calves, aborted bovine fetuses, or reference Singer or Draper bvdv. The pathogenicity of each isolate, relative to the others, was evaluated in lambs by measurement of the neutralizing antibody response, virus isolation from nasal secretions or tissues, and postmortem lesions. The bvdv isolates varied in their infectivity and pathogenicity. Singer, the cytopathic reference strain, was the most lymphotrophic isolate and stimulated the greatest neutralizing antibody response. Encephalitis was the most consistent lesion observed and was used as the final determinant of relative pathogenicity of the viruses. The most neuropathogenic isolates were the 2 viruses originating from lambs affected with respiratory tract disease, the 2 weak neonatal calf isolates, and 1 isolate from an aborted bovine fetus. The least pathogenic isolates were the 2 reference isolates, Draper and Singer; the 2 mucosal disease isolates; and 1 isolate originating from an aborted bovine fetus.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Supply chain issues disrupt veterinary care and cause downstream consequences that alter the practice of veterinary medicine. Antimicrobials are just 1 class of pharmaceuticals that have been impacted by supply chain issues over the last couple of years. Since February 2021, 2 sponsors/manufacturers of penicillin products have reported shortages in the active pharmaceutical ingredient. With the release of the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals by the FDA, a key finding was a 19% decrease in penicillin sales and distribution from 2020 to 2021. Herein, we provide our clinicians’ professional perspective regarding how drug shortages, specifically that of penicillin, might contribute to misconstrued patterns in antimicrobial use and what can be done by veterinarians and the FDA to minimize the impact of an antimicrobial drug shortage on animal health and well-being.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association