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  • Author or Editor: M. Keith Chaffin x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, diagnostic methods, treatment, and outcome for a series of adult horses with abdominal abscesses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—61 adult horses.

Procedures—Medical records of adult horses with abdominal abscesses treated at Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (1993 to 2008) were reviewed. Information was recorded regarding signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and short- and long-term outcomes. Risk factors for survival were determined.

Results—61 horses met the criteria for inclusion. Clinical signs included colic (67%), fever (46%), anorexia (51%), signs of depression (57%), tachycardia (46%), and weight loss (30%). The diagnosis was made on the basis of abdominal ultrasonography, exploratory celiotomy, palpation per rectum, and necropsy. Abscesses were variable in size, location, and number. Only 15 (24.6%) horses survived to discharge. Multiple bacterial isolates were identified from aspirates of abscesses, and subsequent abdominal adhesion formation limited survival, affecting outcome. Risk factors for survival included age and heart rate at admission.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Adult horses with abdominal abscesses often have severe adhesion formation. Multiple bacterial isolates are frequently identified from the abscess. Prognosis for survival is guarded.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine whether administration of commercially available Escherichia coli antiserum to neonatal foals would affect serum IgG concentration or morbidity and mortality rates during the first 60 days of life.

Design

Randomized controlled trial.

Animals

271 neonatal foals on 4 well-managed farms.

Procedure

Foals were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. All foals were allowed to suckle colostrum normally. In addition, treatment-group foals were given E coli antiserum (10 ml) orally between 0 and 8 hours after birth. Serum samples were obtained between 18 and 36 hours after birth, and serum IgG concentration was determined. Foals were monitored for the first 60 days after birth, and causes of disease or death were recorded.

Results

Groups did not differ significantly in regard to breed, sex, month of birth, season of birth, age of dams, parity of dams, duration of gestation, or specific gravity of colostrum before suckling. In addition, groups did not differ significantly in regard to mean serum IgG concentration, prevalence of complete or partial failure of passive transfer of immunity, frequency or causes of disease, or frequency of death from infectious causes.

Clinical Implications

In this group of foals on well-managed farms, administration of E coli antiserum did not alter serum IgG concentrations or morbidity and mortality rates during the first 60 days of life. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;212: 1746–1750)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—3 adult Quarter Horses were evaluated for acute, progressive neurologic signs 18 hours after oral administration of 1 dose of 1.87% ivermectin paste.

Clinical Findings—Clinical signs included depression, forelimb and hind limb ataxia, drooping of the superior and inferior lips, and muscle fasciculations. Bilateral mydriasis, decreased pupillary light reflexes, and absent menace reflexes were evident. Clinical signs progressed in severity for 36 hours after administration of the ivermectin.

Treatment and Outcome—All horses were treated supportively with IV administration of fluids and anti-inflammatory medications. Two horses survived with no apparent long-term sequelae. One horse was euthanized, and a high concentration of ivermectin was detected in its brain tissue at postmortem examination. Analysis of the ivermectin concentration in the paste product revealed that the concentration was approximately that indicated on the packaging.

Clinical Relevance—Ivermectin toxicosis is an uncommonly reported condition in equids that should be considered when acute neurologic impairment develops after ivermectin administration. Recovery is possible with supportive care and time.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe frequency, types, and clinical outcomes of extrapulmonary disorders (EPDs) in foals in which Rhodococcus equi infection was diagnosed, and to identify factors determined at the time of admission that differentiated foals that developed EPDs from foals with R equi infection identified only in the lungs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—150 foals aged 3 weeks to 6 months with a diagnosis of R equi infection.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on date of admission, signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic testing, treatment, duration of hospitalization, invoice, and outcome. For each EPD identified, further information was collected on the identification, location, treatment, and outcome of the lesion.

Results—Of 150 foals with R equi infections, 111 (74%) had at least 1 of 39 EPDs. Survival was significantly higher among foals without EPDs (32/39 [82%]) than among foals with EPDs (48/111 [43%]), but many EPDs were only recognized after death. Risk factors significantly associated with EPDs included referral status, duration of clinical signs prior to admission, leukocytosis, and neutrophilia. Foals with EPDs also had a higher heart rate and BUN concentration than foals without.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Practitioners should recognize that extrapulmonary manifestations of R equi occur with high prevalence affecting diverse organ systems, that multiple systems are generally affected when EPDs occur, and that suspicion of R equi infection should prompt evaluation and monitoring of extrapulmonary sites. Improved recognition of the presence of these disorders will help practitioners to better advise their clients in the treatment and outcome of foals with R equi infections.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—4 horses with enthesopathy and desmitis of the medial collateral ligament of the cubital joint were examined.

Clinical Findings—All 4 horses had a history of acute, severe, unilateral forelimb lameness and had signs of pain during manipulation of the affected upper forelimb; 2 also had swelling in the axillary region. There was no improvement in lameness after diagnostic local analgesia below the carpal region, and 1 of 4 horses had mild improvement after cubital joint analgesia. Radiography revealed enthesophyte formation on the radial tuberosity and linear mineralization of the medial collateral ligament in 2 horses and periosteal reaction on the humeral condyle in all 4 horses. One horse had mild osteoarthritis of the cubital joint, and 3 had osteophytosis of the cranial aspect of the radius. Although all horses were initially examined because of an acute onset of lameness, all had chronic abnormalities visible on imaging. Ultrasonography revealed an irregular boney contour and enthesopathy at the insertion of the short medial collateral ligament to the radial tuberosity and desmitis of the short medial collateral ligament. Two horses had radiographic evidence of similar but less severe lesions of the contralateral cubital joint.

Treatment and Outcome—All horses received phenylbutazone and rest. All horses were free of lameness after a median of 3 months (range, 2 to 4 months) and returned to previous use after a median of 6 months (range, 3 to 8 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results of the present report suggested that performance horses with enthesopathy and desmitis of the medial collateral ligament of the cubital joint may have a good prognosis for return to previous use following appropriate treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To quantify and compare geochemical factors in surface soils from horse-breeding farms with horses with pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi (affected farms) and horse-breeding farms with no history of pneumonia caused by R equi (unaffected farms).

Sample Population—Soil from 24 R equi-affected farms and 21 unaffected farms.

Procedure—Equine veterinary practitioners throughout Texas submitted surface soil samples from areas most frequented by foals, on R equi affected and unaffected horse-breeding farms in their practice. Soil samples were assayed for the following factors: pH, salinity, nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Median values for all factors were recorded, and differences between affected and unaffected farms were compared.

Results—Significant differences in soil factors were not detected between affected and unaffected farms; hence, there was no association between those factors and R equi disease status of the farms.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The surface soil factors monitored in this study were not significant risk factors for pneumonia caused by R equi. As such, it is not possible to determine whether foals on a given farm are at increased risk of developing disease caused by R equi on the basis of these factors. Data do not support altering surface soil for factors examined, such as alkalinization by applying lime, as viable control strategies for R equi. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:95–98)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research