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  • Author or Editor: M. Keith Chaffin x
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Abstract

Case Description—3 adult Quarter Horses were evaluated for acute, progressive neurologic signs 18 hours after oral administration of 1 dose of 1.87% ivermectin paste.

Clinical Findings—Clinical signs included depression, forelimb and hind limb ataxia, drooping of the superior and inferior lips, and muscle fasciculations. Bilateral mydriasis, decreased pupillary light reflexes, and absent menace reflexes were evident. Clinical signs progressed in severity for 36 hours after administration of the ivermectin.

Treatment and Outcome—All horses were treated supportively with IV administration of fluids and anti-inflammatory medications. Two horses survived with no apparent long-term sequelae. One horse was euthanized, and a high concentration of ivermectin was detected in its brain tissue at postmortem examination. Analysis of the ivermectin concentration in the paste product revealed that the concentration was approximately that indicated on the packaging.

Clinical Relevance—Ivermectin toxicosis is an uncommonly reported condition in equids that should be considered when acute neurologic impairment develops after ivermectin administration. Recovery is possible with supportive care and time.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical signs, diagnostic methods, treatment, and outcome for a series of adult horses with abdominal abscesses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—61 adult horses.

Procedures—Medical records of adult horses with abdominal abscesses treated at Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (1993 to 2008) were reviewed. Information was recorded regarding signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and short- and long-term outcomes. Risk factors for survival were determined.

Results—61 horses met the criteria for inclusion. Clinical signs included colic (67%), fever (46%), anorexia (51%), signs of depression (57%), tachycardia (46%), and weight loss (30%). The diagnosis was made on the basis of abdominal ultrasonography, exploratory celiotomy, palpation per rectum, and necropsy. Abscesses were variable in size, location, and number. Only 15 (24.6%) horses survived to discharge. Multiple bacterial isolates were identified from aspirates of abscesses, and subsequent abdominal adhesion formation limited survival, affecting outcome. Risk factors for survival included age and heart rate at admission.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Adult horses with abdominal abscesses often have severe adhesion formation. Multiple bacterial isolates are frequently identified from the abscess. Prognosis for survival is guarded.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—4 horses with enthesopathy and desmitis of the medial collateral ligament of the cubital joint were examined.

Clinical Findings—All 4 horses had a history of acute, severe, unilateral forelimb lameness and had signs of pain during manipulation of the affected upper forelimb; 2 also had swelling in the axillary region. There was no improvement in lameness after diagnostic local analgesia below the carpal region, and 1 of 4 horses had mild improvement after cubital joint analgesia. Radiography revealed enthesophyte formation on the radial tuberosity and linear mineralization of the medial collateral ligament in 2 horses and periosteal reaction on the humeral condyle in all 4 horses. One horse had mild osteoarthritis of the cubital joint, and 3 had osteophytosis of the cranial aspect of the radius. Although all horses were initially examined because of an acute onset of lameness, all had chronic abnormalities visible on imaging. Ultrasonography revealed an irregular boney contour and enthesopathy at the insertion of the short medial collateral ligament to the radial tuberosity and desmitis of the short medial collateral ligament. Two horses had radiographic evidence of similar but less severe lesions of the contralateral cubital joint.

Treatment and Outcome—All horses received phenylbutazone and rest. All horses were free of lameness after a median of 3 months (range, 2 to 4 months) and returned to previous use after a median of 6 months (range, 3 to 8 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The results of the present report suggested that performance horses with enthesopathy and desmitis of the medial collateral ligament of the cubital joint may have a good prognosis for return to previous use following appropriate treatment.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe frequency, types, and clinical outcomes of extrapulmonary disorders (EPDs) in foals in which Rhodococcus equi infection was diagnosed, and to identify factors determined at the time of admission that differentiated foals that developed EPDs from foals with R equi infection identified only in the lungs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—150 foals aged 3 weeks to 6 months with a diagnosis of R equi infection.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on date of admission, signalment, history, clinical signs, diagnostic testing, treatment, duration of hospitalization, invoice, and outcome. For each EPD identified, further information was collected on the identification, location, treatment, and outcome of the lesion.

Results—Of 150 foals with R equi infections, 111 (74%) had at least 1 of 39 EPDs. Survival was significantly higher among foals without EPDs (32/39 [82%]) than among foals with EPDs (48/111 [43%]), but many EPDs were only recognized after death. Risk factors significantly associated with EPDs included referral status, duration of clinical signs prior to admission, leukocytosis, and neutrophilia. Foals with EPDs also had a higher heart rate and BUN concentration than foals without.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Practitioners should recognize that extrapulmonary manifestations of R equi occur with high prevalence affecting diverse organ systems, that multiple systems are generally affected when EPDs occur, and that suspicion of R equi infection should prompt evaluation and monitoring of extrapulmonary sites. Improved recognition of the presence of these disorders will help practitioners to better advise their clients in the treatment and outcome of foals with R equi infections.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify farm characteristics as risk factors for the development of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals.

Design—Prospective matched case-control study.

Animals—2,764 foals on 64 equine breeding farms with 9,991 horses.

Procedure—During 1997, participating veterinarians completed paired data collection forms, 1 for a farm with ≥ 1 foal with R equi pneumonia and 1 for an unaffected control farm. Matched data were compared by use of conditional logistic regression analysis.

Results—Farm characteristics found in bivariate analyses to be associated with increased risk for pneumonia caused by R equi in foals included > 200 farm acres, ≥ 60 acres used in the husbandry of horses, > 160 horses, ≥ 10 mares housed permanently on the farm (resident mares), > 17 foals, > 0.25 foals/acre, and the presence of transient mares (mares brought temporarily to the farm for breeding or foaling) and their foals. Affected farms were significantly more likely to be > 200 acres in size and have ≥ 10 resident dam-foal pairs, whereas control farms were significantly more likely to have ≥ 75% of their dam-foal pairs housed permanently on the farm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Breeding farms with large acreage, a large number of mares and foals, high foal density, and a population of transient mares and foals are at high risk for foals developing pneumonia caused by R equi. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:467–475)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To ascertain the frequency of ultrasonographic identification of liver at sites recommended for blind percutaneous liver biopsy in middle-aged horses and to determine whether the liver is obscured by other organs or too thin for safe sample collection at recommended locations.

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—36 healthy middle-aged (between 6 and 18 years old) Quarter Horses or Quarter Horse crosses.

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from each horse and submitted for evaluation of liver function. Horses with any indication of liver dysfunction on serum biochemical analysis were excluded. The region just below a line drawn between the dorsal aspect of the tuber coxae and the point of the elbow joint in the right 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th intercostal spaces (ICSs) was imaged by ultrasonography for the presence of liver. In each ICS, liver thickness and whether there was partial obstruction in viewing the liver caused by other abdominal or thoracic organs were recorded.

Results—39% (14/36) of horses had liver imaged on ultrasonographic examination in all of the 11th to 14th ICSs. None of the 36 horses had liver of adequate thickness (ie, liver thickness ≥ 3.5 cm) for biopsy in all of the imaged ICSs. For 22 horses in which the liver was not visible on ultrasonographic examination of an ICS, lung was imaged instead in 12 (55%) horses, intestine in 8 (36%), and both intestine and lung in 2 (9%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—On the basis of the results of this study, the practice of blind percutaneous liver biopsy in horses is not recommended because of the risk of serious complications.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of azithromycin chemoprophylaxis on the cumulative incidence of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi, age at onset of pneumonia, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of azithromycin for R equi isolates cultured from fecal and clinical samples.

Design—Controlled, randomized clinical trial.

Animals—338 foals born and raised at 10 equine breeding farms; each farm had a history of endemic R equi infections.

Procedures—Group 1 foals were control foals, and group 2 foals were treated with azithromycin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 48 h) during the first 2 weeks after birth. Foals were monitored for development of pneumonia attributable to R equi infection and for adverse effects of azithromycin. Isolates of R equi were tested for susceptibility to azithromycin.

Results—The proportion of R equi–affected foals was significantly higher for control foals (20.8%) than for azithromycin-treated foals (5.3%). Adverse effects of azithromycin treatment were not detected, and there were no significant differences between groups for the MICs of azithromycin for R equi isolates cultured from fecal or clinical samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Azithromycin chemoprophylaxis effectively reduced the cumulative incidence of pneumonia attributable to R equi among foals at breeding farms with endemic R equi infections. There was no evidence of resistance to azithromycin. Nonetheless, caution must be used because it is possible that resistance could develop with widespread use of azithromycin as a preventative treatment. Further investigation is needed before azithromycin chemoprophylaxis can be recommended for control of R equi infections.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether foal management practices, environmental management, and preventative health practices are risk factors for development of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals.

Design—Prospective matched case-control study.

Animals—2,764 foals on 64 equine breeding farms with 9,991 horses.

Procedure—During 1997, participating veterinarians completed paired data collection forms for comparison; 1 for an affected farm (containing ≥ 1 foal with pneumonia caused by R equi)and 1 for a control farm. Information collected pertained to stabling facilities, environmental management, foal husbandry, and preventative equine health practices.

Results—Matched farm data compared by use of conditional logistic regression indicated that personnel on affected farms were more likely to attend foal births, test foals for adequacy of passive immunity, administer plasma or other treatments to foals to supplement serum immunoglobulin concentrations, administer hyperimmune plasma prophylactically to foals, vaccinate mares and foals against Streptococcus equi infection, and use multiple anthelmintics in deworming programs. Affected farms were also more likely to have foals that developed other respiratory tract disorders and were approximately 4 times as likely to have dirt floors in stalls used for housing foals as were control farms.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceRhodococcus equi pneumonia does not appear to be associated with poor farm management or a lack of attention to preventative health practices. Housing foals in stalls with dirt floors may increase the risk for development of R equi pneumonia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222:476–485)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association