OBJECTIVE To develop an in vitro system for differentiation of equine B cells from bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells on the basis of protocols for other species.
SAMPLE Bone marrow aspirates aseptically obtained from 12 research horses.
PROCEDURES Equine bone marrow CD34+ cells were sorted by use of magnetic beads and cultured in medium supplemented with cytokines (recombinant human interleukin-7, equine interleukin-7, stem cell factor, and Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3), murine OP9 stromal cell preconditioned medium, and equine fetal bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cell preconditioned medium. Cells in culture were characterized by use of flow cytometry, immunocytofluorescence microscopy, and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay.
RESULTS For these culture conditions, bone marrow–derived equine CD34+ cells differentiated into CD19+IgM+ B cells that expressed the signature transcription factors early B-cell factor and transcription factor 3. These conditions also supported the concomitant development of autologous stromal cells, and their presence was supportive of B-cell development.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Equine B cells were generated from bone marrow aspirates by use of supportive culture conditions. In vitro generation of equine autologous B cells should be of use in studies on regulation of cell differentiation and therapeutic transplantation.
A 17-year-old Friesian gelding was examined at a referral hospital because of a 1-month history of mild exercise intolerance and marked lymphocytosis.
Physical examination revealed no peripheral lymphadenopathy or other abnormalities. Results of an abdominal palpation examination per rectum and thoracic and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations were unremarkable. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was diagnosed on the basis of severe lymphocytosis and positive expression of the B-cell marker CD20 by lymphocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral blood.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Treatment with prednisolone (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], PO, every other day) and chlorambucil (20 mg/m2, PO, every 3 weeks for 2 doses, then every 2 weeks) was initially associated with improvement in clinical signs and a decrease in the lymphocyte count. However, 3 weeks after administration of the first dose of chlorambucil, the lymphocyte count began to increase. One week later, the horse developed episodes of recurrent fever and the lymphocyte count continued to increase. Despite continued administration of the prednisolone-chlorambucil protocol, the horse's clinical condition deteriorated rapidly, and it was euthanized 6 weeks after initial examination at the referral hospital because of a poor prognosis. A necropsy was not performed.
B-cell CLL has been infrequently described in horses. This report was the first to describe the use of chemotherapy, albeit unsuccessful, for the treatment of B-cell CLL in a horse. This information should be useful for guiding expectations for prognosis and management of other horses affected with the disease.
Objective—To evaluate the influence of treatment with ultralow-dose aspirin (ULDAsp) on platelet aggregation, P-selectin (CD62P) expression, and formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in clinically normal dogs.
Animals—18 clinically normal dogs.
Procedures—Studies were conducted before and 24 hours after ULDAsp administration (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 2 days). Whole blood impedance aggregometry for the assessment of platelet function was performed with sodium citrate–anticoagulated blood and aggregation agonists (ADP at 20, 10, and 5 μmol/L; collagen at 10, 5, and 2 μg/mL). Onset, maximum response, and rate of platelet aggregation were recorded. Flow cytometric assays were configured to detect thrombin-induced CD62P expression and platelet-leukocyte aggregates in EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood. Externalized platelet CD62P and constitutive CD61 (GPIIIa) were labeled with antibodies conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), respectively. Red blood cell–lysed paraformaldehyde-fixed EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood was dual labeled with CD61-FITC and a panleukocyte antibody (CD18-PE) to characterize platelet-leukocyte aggregates.
Results—ULDAsp significantly delayed platelet aggregation onset with ADP at 20 μmol/L by 54% to 104%, attenuated maximum aggregation with various concentrations of ADP and collagen by ≥ 41%, and slowed aggregation rate with the highest ADP and collagen concentrations by ≥ 39%. Depending on the parameter tested, up to 30% of dogs failed to have an ULDAsp effect. Thrombin stimulation significantly increased CD62P expression in platelets and platelet-leukocyte aggregates, but ULDAsp did not alter basal or thrombin-stimulated CD62P expression.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ULDAsp treatment of clinically normal dogs impaired platelet aggregation in most dogs, but did not influence CD62P platelet membrane expression. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1294–1304)
Objective—To describe the clinical, endoscopic, and serologic features of an outbreak of besnoitiosis in 2 donkey operations in northeastern Pennsylvania and to report the outcome of attempted treatment of 1 naturally infected individual.
Animals—29 donkeys (Equus asinus) in northeastern Pennsylvania.
Procedures—Donkeys were examined for lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis in an outbreak investigation. Information was collected regarding the history and signalment of animals on each premises. Rhinolaryngoscopy was performed to identify nasopharyngeal and laryngeal lesions. Serum samples were collected for immunofluorescent antibody testing and immunoblotting for Besnoitia spp. Skin biopsy samples were obtained from 8 animals with lesions suggestive of besnoitiosis for histologic examination. Quantitative real-time PCR assay for Besnoitia spp was performed on tissue samples from 5 animals.
Results—Besnoitiosis was confirmed in 6 of the 8 suspected cases. The most common lesion site was the nares, followed by the skin and sclera. Donkeys with clinical signs of disease had higher serum antibody titers and tested positive for a greater number of immunoblot bands than did donkeys without clinical signs of disease. All animals evaluated by PCR assay tested positive. Putative risk factors for disease included age and sex. Ponazuril was not effective at treating besnoitiosis in a naturally infected donkey.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of clinical and serologic features of besnoitiosis in donkeys will assist clinicians in the diagnosis and prevention of this disease in donkey populations. Besnoitiosis may be an emerging disease of donkeys in the United States.