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  • Author or Editor: M. J. Pan x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of an orally administered vaccine of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae that was prepared by spray drying or solvent evaporation.

Animals—Thirty 6-week-old, crossbred, specificpathogen- free (SPF) pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were randomly allocated into 5 groups and housed in an SPF facility. Pigs in 2 groups (groups AQ and CAP) were fed M hyopneumoniae enteric-coated vaccine on days 0, 10, and 20. A third group (group IM) received an IM injection of M hyopneumoniae vaccine with aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant on days 0, 10, and 20. The last 2 groups (nonvaccinated- challenged [NV-C] and nonchallenged [NC]) were fed a sham treatment. All 24 pigs in groups AQ, CAP, IM, and NV-C were challenge exposed with 5 ml of a 10% pneumonic lung suspension administered on day 40 via intubation of the trachea. All pigs were slaughtered and the lungs removed and examined for lesions on day 68.

Results—In vitro studies indicated that these 2 microencapsulation techniques formed an effective shell and protected mycoplasmal antigen from gastric acid. Results of inoculation and challenge tests indicated that microencapsulated M hyopneumoniae were sufficiently potent to induce an immune response and provide good protection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Orally administered microencapsulated M hyopneumoniae vaccines induced an immune response and reduced the severity of lung lesions in challengeexposed pigs. Results suggest that this novel method can be applied to other antigens, because the spray-drying process yielded an orally administered M hyopneumoniae vaccine that induced a good immune response. (Am J Vet Res 2002; 63:1118–1123)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution methods for measurement of total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) in healthy cats and to assess QMR precision and accuracy.

Animals—Domestic shorthair cats (58 and 32 cats for trials 1 and 2, respectively).

Procedures—QMR scans of awake cats performed with 2 units were followed by administration of D2O tracer (100 mg/kg, PO). Cats then were anesthetized, which was followed by QMR and DXA scans. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 120 minutes after D2O administration.

Results—QMR precision was similar between units (coefficient of variation < 2.9% for all measures). Fat mass, LBM, and TBW were similar for awake or sedated cats and differed by 4.0%, 3.4%, and 3.9%, respectively, depending on the unit. The QMR minimally underestimated TBW (1.4%) and LBM (4.4%) but significantly underestimated FM (29%), whereas DXA significantly underestimated LBM (9.2%) and quantitatively underestimated FM (9.3%). A significant relationship with D2O measurement was detected for all QMR (r 2 > 0.84) and DXA (r 2 > 0.84) measurements.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—QMR was useful for determining body composition in cats; precision was improved over DXA. Quantitative magnetic resonance can be used to safely and rapidly acquire data without the need for anesthesia, facilitating frequent monitoring of weight changes in geriatric, extremely young, or ill pets. Compared with the D2O dilution method, QMR correction equations provided accurate data over a range of body compositions.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and deuterium oxide (D2O) methods for measurement of total body water (TBW), lean body mass (LBM), and fat mass (FM) in healthy dogs and to assess QMR accuracy.

Animals—58 Beagles (9 months to 11.5 years old).

Procedures—QMR scans were performed on awake dogs. A D2O tracer was administered (100 mg/kg, PO) immediately before dogs were sedated, which was followed by a second QMR or DXA scan. Jugular blood samples were collected before and 120 minutes after D2O administration.

Results—TBW, LBM, and FM determined via QMR were not significantly different between awake or sedated dogs, and means differed by only 2.0%, 2.2%, and 4.3%, respectively. Compared with results for D2O dilution, QMR significantly underestimated TBW (10.2%), LBM (13.4%), and FM (15.4%). Similarly, DXA underestimated LBM (7.3%) and FM (8.4%). A significant relationship was detected between FM measured via D2O dilution and QMR (r 2 > 0.89) or DXA (r 2 > 0.88). Even though means of TBW and LBM differed significantly between D2O dilution and QMR or DXA, values were highly related (r 2 > 0.92).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—QMR was useful for determining body composition in dogs and can be used to safely and rapidly acquire accurate data without the need for sedation or anesthesia. These benefits can facilitate frequent scans, particularly in geriatric, extremely young, or ill pets. Compared with the D2O dilution method, QMR correction equations provided accurate assessment over a range of body compositions.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research