A 10-year-old female Quarter Horse weighing 480 kg (1,055 lb) was referred to the Texas A&M University Large Animal Clinic for evaluation of nonweight-bearing grade 5 lameness (5-point scale)1 of the right forelimb. A tentative diagnosis of heel abscess or ligament strain had been made, and the horse had been treated with phenylbutazone (8.3 mg/kg [3.8 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 1 week. Physical examination revealed an increase in strength of digital pulse and heat over the hoof capsule on the right forelimb. Sensitivity to hoof testers was detected over the cuneus ungulae (frog) of the
Objective—To determine whether injection of a mesenteric lymph node with iodinated aqueous contrast medium results in radiographic delineation of the thoracic duct and its branches, ascertain the ideal interval between injection and radiographic imaging, and evaluate mesenteric lymphadenography performed via laparoscopic and surgical approaches in dogs.
Animals—10 adult dogs.
Procedure—In each dog, a right paracostal laparotomy or a right laparoscopic approach was performed to identify a mesenteric lymph node for injection of an iodinated aqueous contrast agent (0.22 mL/kg [81.4 mg of iodine/kg]). Lateral radiographic views were obtained at 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 seconds after injection.
Results—A mesenteric lymph node was identified and injected with contrast medium in each dog. Via paracostal laparotomy, lymph node injection resulted in successful lymphangiographic evaluation in 4 of 5 dogs, whereas via the laparoscopic approach, lymph node injection resulted in successful lymphangio-graphic evaluation in 2 of 5 dogs. In successful radiographic evaluations, injected lymph nodes, mesenteric lymphatics, and the thoracic duct and its branches were delineated. Radiographs obtained at 60 and 120 seconds after injection of contrast medium provided the most detail.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of a mesenteric lymph node directly with contrast medium appears to be a feasible technique for delineation of the thoracic duct and its branches in dogs and might be useful in small animals in which mesenteric lymphatic catheterization can be difficult and lymphangiography is more likely to fail. Refinement of the laparoscopic technique may provide a minimally invasive approach to lymphadenography.
Objective—To assess awareness, perceived relevance, and acceptance of surveillance and infection control practices at a large animal referral hospital among referring veterinarians and clients who sent horses to the facility for veterinary care.
Sample—57 referring veterinarians and 594 clients.
Procedures—A 15-question survey targeting Salmonella enterica as an important pathogen of interest in horses was sent to clients who sent ≥ 1 horse to the University of Florida Large Animal Hospital for veterinary care during July 1, 2007, through July 1, 2011, and to veterinarians who had referred horses to the same hospital prior to July 1, 2011. Responses were summarized with descriptive statistics. The χ2 test and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine associations among variables of interest.
Results—Survey response rates were low (57/467 [12%] for veterinarians and 594/3,095 [19%] for clients). Significantly more (35/56 [63%]) veterinarians than clients (227/585 [39%]) were aware that the hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program. Most veterinarians (56/57 [98%]) and clients (554/574 [97%]) indicated that sampling and testing of horses to detect Salmonella shedding in feces at admission and during hospitalization was justified. In addition, on a scale of 1 (not important) to 10 (very important), veterinarians and clients indicated it was very important (median score, 10 [interquartile range, 8 to 10] for both groups) that a referral hospital operates a surveillance and infection control program.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Survey results indicated that awareness of hospital surveillance and infection control practices was higher among veterinarians than clients, and these practices were considered relevant and well-accepted among participant veterinarians and clients.
Objective—To compare the efficacy of a Salmonella
bacterin and a modified live Salmonella ser.
Choleraesuis vaccine on a commercial dairy.
Animals—450 cows in late gestation and 80 calves.
Procedure—Group-1 cows (n = 150) were vaccinated
once with a modified live S Choleraesuis (serogroup
C1) strain 54 (SC54) vaccine, group-2 cows (150) were
vaccinated on enrollment and 30 days later with a
Salmonella ser. Montevideo (serogroup C1) bacterin,
and group-3 cows (150) served as unvaccinated controls.
One gallon of colostrum harvested from the first
80 cows to calve was fed to each calf. Outcome
assessments included fecal shedding of Salmonella
spp for the first 10 days after parturition (cows) or birth
(calves), milk production, involuntary culling rate, mastitis
incidence, antimicrobial use, and mortality rate.
Results—Salmonellae were isolated from 306 of 309
(99%) cows and 64 of 74 (86.5%) calves. Shedding
frequency was less in SC54-vaccinated cows and
calves that received colostrum from those cows,
compared with the other groups, and vaccination was
specifically associated with less shedding of
serogroup C1 salmonellae. Production data were similar
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination of
pregnant cows with an autogenous Salmonella bacterin
had no effect on fecal shedding of salmonellae,
whereas vaccination with a modified live
S Choleraesuis vaccine reduced the frequency of
fecal shedding of serogroup C1 salmonellae during
the peripartum period. A commercial S Choleraesuis
vaccine licensed for use in swine may be more efficacious
than autogenous Salmonella bacterins on
dairies infected with serogroup C1 salmonellae. (Am
J Vet Res 2001;62:1897–1902)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of oral megestrol acetate (MA) administration on adrenal function in male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).
DESIGN Serial cross-sectional study.
ANIMALS 8 adult male dolphins, all of which were receiving MA at various daily doses (range, 0 to 60 mg, PO) for the control of reproductive behavior.
PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks for 1 year from dolphins trained to voluntarily provide them. Cortisol, ACTH, and other hormone concentrations were measured in serum or plasma via radioimmunoassay or ELISA. Fecal samples, also provided by dolphins voluntarily, were assayed for glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations. Effects of daily MA dose on hormone concentrations were evaluated.
RESULTS Daily MA doses as low as 10 mg strongly suppressed cortisol secretion in nearly all dolphins, and except for a single measurement, no dolphin had measurable serum concentrations at doses ≥ 20 mg. Variations in serum cortisol concentration were unrelated to season but were directly related to ACTH concentrations, suggesting primary effects upstream of the adrenal gland. Cessation of MA administration resulted in almost immediate restoration of measurable serum cortisol concentrations, although concentrations continued to rise in a few dolphins over the following weeks to months.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Caution should be exercised when administering MA to control reproductive behavior in male dolphins. Because the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis appeared to be sensitive to even small doses of MA in dolphins, duration of treatment may be the most critical consideration.
Objective—To evaluate therapeutic efficacy of a high
extralabel dose of ceftiofur for treatment of experimental
salmonellosis in neonatal calves.
Animals—Forty-two 1- to 4-day-old Holstein bull
Procedure—36 calves were orally challenged with
Salmonella enteritica serovar Typhimurium (6.5 × 108
colony-forming units). Six additional calves were
retained as nonmedicated nonchallenged control
calves. Four days following Salmonella challenge, surviving
calves were randomly allocated to ceftiofurtreated
(5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) or nonmedicated control
groups. Calves assigned to the treated group were
medicated daily for 5 days starting on day 4 after challenge.
Calves were monitored for 18 days following
Salmonella challenge. Outcome assessments included
clinical parameters (attitude, appetite, fecal characteristics,
and rectal temperature), mortality rate, and
quantitative Salmonella culture of fecal samples,
mesenteric lymph nodes, and cecal contents.
Results—Ceftiofur treatment was associated with a
significant decrease in rectal temperature and diarrhea.
Three of 15 medicated calves and 4 of 14 nonmedicated
calves died or were euthanatized between
days 4 and 18. A significant decrease in fecal shedding
of Salmonella organisms was observed in treated
calves, compared with non-medicated calves.
Salmonella organisms were isolated from all 10 nonmedicated
calves at necropsy, whereas no
Salmonella organisms were isolated from 5 of 12
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of
salmonellosis in neonatal calves with a high extralabel
dose of ceftiofur (5 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h) promotes animal
welfare, reduces fecal shedding of Salmonella
organisms, and may promote clearance of Salmonella
infections when plasma ceftiofur concentrations are
maintained above minimal inhibitory concentrations.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:918–925)
Objective—To examine the relationship between abdominal surgery and nosocomial Salmonella infections and the relationship between high caseload in combination with abdominal surgery and nosocomial Salmonella infections in hospitalized horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract disease.
Procedures—To accomplish the first objective, 1 to 4 control horses were matched with each nosocomial case horse on the basis of admission date of a primary case horse. The frequency of abdominal surgery and other investigated exposure factors were compared between nosocomial case horses and control horses. For the second objective, 4 control horses were matched with each nosocomial case horse on the basis of year of admission. The frequency of high caseload (≥ 26 inpatients), abdominal surgery, and other factors was compared between nosocomial case horses and control horses.
Results—The odds of nosocomial Salmonella infection were 8 times as high (odds ratio = 8.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.11, 60.24) in horses that underwent abdominal surgery, compared with the odds for horses that did not undergo surgery. High caseload alone or in combination with abdominal surgery was not associated with increased risk of nosocomial Salmonella infection.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abdominal surgery was identified as a risk factor for nosocomial Salmonella infections in horses. Horses that undergo abdominal surgery require enhanced infection control and preventative care. Risk of nosocomial Salmonella infections may be reduced by implementation of biosecurity measures (such as the use of plastic boots, gloves, and footbaths) immediately after surgery.
Case Description—13 equids (10 horses, 2 donkeys, and 1 pony) were examined for signs of colic (n = 7), weight loss (6), anorexia (3), and diarrhea (2). Ten equids were evaluated in the fall (September to November). Seven equids had a history of persimmon ingestion.
Clinical Findings—A diagnosis of phytobezoar caused by persimmon ingestion was made for all equids. Eight equids had gastric persimmon phytobezoars; 5 had enteric persimmon phytobezoars. Gastroscopy or gastroduodenoscopy revealed evidence of persimmon ingestion in 8 of 10 equids in which these procedures were performed.
Treatment and Outcome—2 of 13 equids were euthanatized prior to treatment. Supportive care was instituted in 11 of 13 equids, including IV administration of fluids (n = 8) and treatment with antimicrobials (5), NSAIDs (5), and gastric acid suppressants (4). Persimmon phytobezoar–specific treatments included dietary modification to a pelleted feed (n = 8); oral or nasogastric administration of cola or diet cola (4), cellulase (2), or mineral oil (2); surgery (4); and intrapersimmon phytobezoar injections with acetylcysteine (1). Medical treatment in 5 of 7 equids resulted in resolution of gastric persimmon phytobezoars. Seven of 8 equids with gastric persimmon phytobezoars and 1 of 5 equids with enteric persimmon phytobezoars survived > 1 year after hospital discharge.
Clinical Relevance—Historical knowledge of persimmon ingestion in equids with gastrointestinal disease warrants gastroduodenoscopy for evaluation of the presence of persimmon phytobezoars. In equids with gastric persimmon phytobezoars, medical management (including administration of cola or diet cola and dietary modification to a pelleted feed) may allow for persimmon phytobezoar dissolution.
OBJECTIVE To characterize the processes involved in and outcomes achieved with custom-designed patient-specific implants to provide functional replacement of skeletal structures in dogs with tumors of the mandible, radius, or tibia.
DESIGN Prospective case series.
ANIMALS 6 dogs with mandibular tumors, 5 with tumors of the distal aspect of the radius, and 1 with a tumor in the distal aspect of the tibia treated from June 2013 to September 2016 at 3 referral centers.
PROCEDURES After tumor staging, implants were designed from patients' CT scans by means of various computer-aided design applications and printed by means of selective laser melting in titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium alloy. A cutting jig was created in thermoplastic to ensure each osteotomy was performed as planned. Following ostectomy, the implant was secured into the defect with screws of appropriate size and length.
RESULTS Initial return to normal clinical function was good to excellent for 11 of the 12 dogs. However, major complications resulted in revision of the implant or amputation of the limb in 5 dogs, and at least 3 of these complications were considered a consequence of faulty implant design or manufacturing. Infection developed in 2 dogs and was successfully treated in 1 dog. The longest-surviving dog maintained good limb function for 2 years.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This is the largest reported series of dogs managed with customized 3-D-printed titanium implants. The 3-D printing allowed complex and patient-specific 3-D geometries to be fabricated, enabling function-sparing treatment of bone cancer affecting multiple anatomic sites.