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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cardiorespiratory effects of abdominal insufflation were evaluated in 8 dogs during isoflurane anesthesia. Each dog was studied 3 times, in 1 of the following orders of insufflation pressures: 10-20-30, 20-30-10, 30-20-10, 10-30-20, 20-10-30, and 30-10-20 mm of Hg. Anesthesia was induced by use of a mask, dogs were intubated, and anesthesia was maintained by isoflurane in 100% oxygen. After instrumentation, baseline values were recorded (time 0), and the abdomen was insufflated with nitrous oxide. Data were recorded at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after insufflation. The abdomen was then desufflated, with recording of data continuing at 35 and 40 minutes. Mean arterial pressure increased at 5 minutes during 20 mm of Hg insufflation pressure, and from 20 to 30 minutes during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Tidal volume decreased from 5 to 30 minutes during 10 and 20 mm of Hg pressures, and from 5 to 40 minutes during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Minute ventilation decreased at 10 and 20 minutes during 20 mm of Hg pressure. End-tidal CO2 concentration increased from 5 to 30 minutes during 20 and 30 mm of Hg pressure. The PaCO2 decreased at 40 minutes during 10 mm of Hg pressure, at 30 minutes during 20 mm of Hg pressure, and from 10 to 40 minutes during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Values for pH decreased from 10 to 30 minutes during 20 and 30 mm of Hg pressures. The PaO2 decreased from 20 to 40 minutes during 10 mm of Hg pressure, at 30 minutes during 20 mm of Hg pressure, and from 10 to 40 minutes during 30 mm of Hg pressure. Percentage decrease in tidal volume was greater at 5 and 15 minutes with 30 mm of Hg pressure. Differences in percentage increase in end tidal CO2 concentration were observed among the 3 pressures from 5 to 30 minutes. Although significant, these changes do not preclude use of laparoscopy if insufflation pressure > 20 mm of Hg is avoided.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves abolishes reflex-evoked muscle action potentials (REMP) during tooth-pulp stimulation in halothane-anesthetized cats.

Animals—8 healthy adult cats.

Procedure—In halothane-anesthetized cats, an anodal electrode was attached to the tooth to be stimulated and a platinum needle cathodal electrode was inserted in adjacent gingival mucosa. Cathodal and anodal electrodes were moved to the upper and lower canine, upper fourth premolar, and lower first molar teeth for stimulation; baseline REMP was recorded. A 25-gauge 1-cm needle was inserted 0.5 cm into the infraorbital canal. A 25-gauge 1-cm needle was inserted 1 cm rostral to the angular process of the ramus, and advanced 0.5 cm along the medial aspect. Chloroprocaine was injected at each site. Each tooth was stimulated every 10 minutes for 90 minutes.

Results—REMP was abolished within 10 minutes for all upper teeth, except for the upper canine tooth in 1 cat, and abolished within 10 minutes for lower teeth in 4 cats. In 1 cat, REMP was not abolished in the lower first molar tooth. In 3 cats, REMP was not abolished in the lower canine and first molar teeth. At 90 minutes, REMP was restored for all teeth except the lower canine tooth in 1 cat, for which REMP was restored at 120 minutes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Regional anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves may provide dental analgesia in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1245–1247)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the accuracy and reliability of a visual method of evaluating horseshoe characteristics.

Animals—1,199 Thoroughbred racehorses.

Procedure—Characteristics of 1 forelimb horseshoe were visually assessed on horses immediately prior to racing by 5 field observers at 5 major racetracks in California. Characteristics evaluated included horseshoe type; toe grab height; and the presence of a rim, pad, and heel traction devices. Sensitivity and specificity for observer assessment of horseshoe characteristics were calculated by comparing observer assessments to a postmortem laboratory standard for horses that died within 48 hours of a race. Intraobserver agreement was assessed in a subset of horses by comparing horseshoe observations made before and after the horse's race. Interobserver agreement was evaluated by comparing horseshoe assessment among observers who examined the same subset of horses prior to racing on select days.

Results—The sensitivity and specificity of this visual method of evaluating horseshoe characteristics were good and ranged from 0.75 to 1 and 0.67 to 1, respectively. Agreement beyond chance (weighted kappa values) between observers and the laboratory standard for toe grab height was fair (0.60 to 0.62). Intraobserver and interobserver agreements (kappa values) were high (0.86 to 0.99 and 0.71 to 1, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visual observation of horseshoes can be a feasible and reproducible method for assessing horseshoe characteristics prospectively in a large cohort of horses under racing conditions. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1674–1679)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe forelimb horseshoe characteristics of horses racing on dirt surfaces and determine whether these characteristics vary with region of California, season, horse characteristics, and race-related factors.

Animals—5,730 Thoroughbred racehorses.

Procedure—From June 17, 2000, to June 16, 2001, the characteristics of 1 forelimb horseshoe of horses that raced on dirt surfaces at 5 major racetracks in California were recorded. These characteristics included shoe type; toe grab height; and presence of a rim, pad, and heel traction devices (jar caulks, heel stickers, heel blocks, and special nails). Horse and race information was obtained from commercial records. One race/horse was randomly selected.

Results—99% of forelimb horseshoes were aluminum racing plates, 35% had a pad, 23% had a rim, and 8% had a heel traction device. A toe grab was observed on 75% of forelimb horseshoes (14% very low [≤ 2 mm], 30% low [> 2 and ≤ 4 mm], 30% regular [> 4 and ≤ 6 mm], and 1% high [> 6 and ≤ 8 mm]). Forelimb horseshoe characteristics varied with region of California, season, age and sex of the horse, race purse and distance, and track surface condition. Loglinear modeling revealed that all of these factors were significantly interrelated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Complex interrelationships among forelimb horseshoe characteristics and region, season, age and sex of the horse, and race-related factors need to be considered when evaluating the relationships between injury and horseshoe characteristics in Thoroughbred racehorses. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1021–1030)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Reversal of hemodynamic alterations induced by midazolam maleate (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), xylazine hydrochloride (0.44 mg/kg), and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg) with yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg) and flumazenil (0.25 mg/kg) was evaluated in 5 dogs. The dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane for instrumentation. With return to consciousness, baseline values were recorded, and the midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol mixture with glycopyrrolate was administered IV. Hemodynamic data were recorded for 60 minutes, and then a reversal mixture of yohimbine and flumazenil was administered IV. All variables were measured 1 minute from beginning of the reversal injection. Mean arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly (P < 0.05) above baseline at 60 minutes. Cardiac index and central venous pressure significantly decreased below baseline at 60 minutes. After reversal, mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure significantly decreased from baseline, whereas cardiac index, pulmonary arterial pressure, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above baseline. Heart rate, cardiac index, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above the 60-minute value after reversal. Mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance decreased significantly (P < 0.05) below the 60-minute value after reversal. The hemodynamic alterations accompanying midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol sedation-anesthesia may be rapidly reversed with a combination of yohimbine and flumazenil.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association