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  • Author or Editor: M. C. Horzinek x
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SUMMARY

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were established to detect Breda virus antigen in feces and homologous antibodies of the IgGl, IgM, and IgA isotypes in serum. With the aid of solid-phase immune-electron microscopy, torovirions in fecal material were observed. The course of natural infection was studied in 10 sentinel calves that had been obtained from different farms, and housed together at 1 week of age. They were separated from other cattle until the age of 10 months.

Up to the age of 4 months, all calves regularly excreted Breda virus in the feces. Irrespective of the existence of IgG1 isotype maternal antibodies, all calves had early IgM responses in serum, but lack of IgA seroconversion. In 7 calves, antibody titer decreased below detection, whereas 3 calves had an isotype switch, resulting in persistent IgG1 titer. After introduction into the dairy herd at 10 months of age, all calves had diarrhea, and shedding of Breda virus was observed in 8 of them. Seroconversion for all antibody isotypes was observed, indicating lack of mucosal memory. In contrast, coronavirus infection in the presence of maternal antibodies led to isotype switch in all calves but one, and a memory response was observed after introduction into the dairy herd.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Sera from cats with naturally acquired and experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus (fiv) infections were tested by immunoblot analysis, radioimmunoprecipitation assay (ripa), and a complex trapping/ blocking elisa. In sequentially obtained samples from experimentally inoculated cats, antibodies against the envelope protein gp120 and the core protein pl5 were the first to appear, as indicated by results of ripa, using lysates of fiv-infected lymphocytes. Antibodies could be detected as early as 2 weeks after infection, followed by a response against p24, p43, and p50. By immunoblot analysis, p24 and p15 were the first proteins detectable between postinoculation weeks 3 and 5; an anti-envelope response was never found by use of this assay, but was found by ripa. Using the latter test, most sera of naturally infected cats were found to recognize the major core protein p24 in addition to 1 or more minor core proteins. All 40 sera tested precipitated the envelope protein; 3 reacted exclusively with it. A complex trapping/blocking elisa was developed to quantitate the anti-p24 response. Sera from healthy Fiv-infected cats were shown to have higher anti-p24 titer than did those from diseased cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

An epidemiologic survey was performed to determine the incidence of torovirus infections in 2 disease entities of cattle: diarrhea of replacement calves up to 2 months old, and winter dysentery of adult cattle. Samples were obtained from 187 diarrheal and 115 healthy calves from 15 farms, as well as 149 diarrheal and 67 healthy cows from 27 farms with or without winter dysentery. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of torovirus, rotavirus, and coronavirus antigen in feces, and of torovirus and coronavirus antibodies in serum were used to monitor infections in these groups. Torovirus was detected in 9 of the 15 farms in the study, and in 6% of calves with diarrhea, which was significantly higher than in healthy calves (2%). Seroconversion to torovirus was found significantly more often after winter dysentery episodes than on farms without a disease history; coronavirus seroconversion was less common.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research