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Abstract

Objective

To add objective measurements of the characteristics of evoked injury potentials (EIP) and their relations to clinical severity in dogs with thoracolumbar spinal cord damage.

Animals

25 dogs with naturally acquired spinal cord compression attributable to disk extrusion or vertebral fracture at the level of the thoracolumbar junction and with various degrees of paresis/paralysis.

Procedure

Spinal cord potentials evoked by tibial nerve stimulation were recorded every 5 to 10 mm at the lamina level in the vicinity of the cord compression. This allowed an EIP to be recorded even in the least handicapped dogs. A computer model yielded information about the waveform changes of the EIP in the vicinity of conduction blocks.

Results

The EIP waveform changed from biphasic to monophasic a short distance caudad to the location of spinal cord compression. Location of a maximal conduction block was measured in relation to position of the electrodes recording this waveform change. The distance between the assumed conduction block and the actual spinal cord compression was larger in the most affected dogs. The amplitude of the EIP was not related to severity of the clinical picture; however, the proximity of the recording electrode to the spine influenced the amplitude and the waveform of the EIP.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Change in the EIP waveform from biphasic to monophasic makes it possible to estimate the conduction block location along the spinal cord. A large distance between the assumed conduction block and site of actual cord compression could be an objective argument to confirm severity of a lesion. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:300–306)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

We compared the effects of bilateral vs unilateral tibial nerve stimulation of percutaneously recorded spinal evoked potentials (sep) in the lumbar and caudal thoracic area in dogs. The overall amplitude of the sep is increased by this means. Use of this method could improve legibility of the recordings. Amplitudes of root and interneuronal components of the sep are doubled as are cranially transmitted depolarizations. However, the amplitude of the sep component arising from the primary afferents’ depolarization was less than doubled. Latencies of the components were unaffected by bilateral stimulation. Careful observation of the latencies disclosed a 0.9-ms delay in transmission of the fastest component in the midlumbar area. This delay was consistant with results of previous cordotomy experiments, and could influence precision of conduction velocity measurement.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effectiveness of infusion of 1 and 2% enilconazole for treatment of nasal and sinusal aspergillosis, respectively, in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—26 client-owned dogs with aspergillosis.

Procedure—All dogs had typical clinical signs of aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or intranasal fungal plaques associated with turbinate destruction. During rhinoscopy, affected nasal cavities and frontal sinuses were debrided meticulously. Nineteen dogs (group A) were treated with 1% enilconazole by use of a modified noninvasive infusion procedure. Seven dogs (group B) were treated with 2% enilconazole via catheters that were placed via endoscopic guidance into the frontal sinuses. All dogs underwent follow-up rhinoscopy for determination of further treatment until cure was established.

Results—Age, disease duration, clinical score, and rhinoscopic score were similar for both groups before treatment. In group A, 17 of 19 dogs were cured; 9, 6, and 2 dogs were cured after 1, 2, or 3 treatments, respectively. The remaining 2 dogs were euthanatized before the end of the treatment protocol. In group B, all dogs were cured; 6 dogs and 1 dog were cured after 1 or 2 treatments, respectively. Only minor adverse effects such as nasal discharge, epistaxis, and sneezing developed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After extensive rhinoscopic debridement, 1 and 2% enilconazole infused into the nasal cavities and the frontal sinuses, respectively, were effective for treatment of aspergillosis in dogs. Intrasinusal administration via endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require fewer infusions for success. Follow-up rhinoscopy is strongly advised. (J Am Med Vet Assoc 2002;221:1421–1425)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the prevalence of presumed concurrent medial coronoid process fractures in a series of cases of humeral condylar fractures and evaluate factors influencing the presence of a suspected fracture of the medial coronoid process.

ANIMALS

48 dogs and 7 cats, with a total of 57 humeral fractures.

METHODS

Medical records of dogs and cats diagnosed with a humeral condylar fracture with radiographs were reviewed between October 2013 and March 2022. Species, sex, neutered status, age, weight, and the nature of the trauma were noted. Radiographs were assessed for the configuration of humeral condylar fracture, the presence of a suspected fractured medial coronoid process (MCP), number of MCP fragments, nature of fracture, degree of radioulnar incongruity, soft tissue swelling, and elbow luxation/subluxation.

RESULTS

A presumed fracture of the MCP was seen in 26 of 57 cases. Comminution of the condylar fracture was the only parameter that had a positive effect on the presence of a possible fractured MCP. Body weight was significantly associated with size of the suspected fractured MCP. The presence of this fracture was not associated with the type of humeral condylar fracture. The size of the presumed fractured MCP fragment was positively correlated with body weight.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

There was a high prevalence of presumed fractured MCPs in dogs with humeral condylar fractures (almost 50%) and even more so in animals with comminuted fractures. The consequences of suspected fractured MCP associated with humeral condylar fractures and whether dogs and cats would benefit from removal of the fragment remain unknown.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate efficacy of intra-articular injection of gadolinium tetra-azacyclododecane tetra-acetic acid (gadolinium-DOTA) for delineating fragmented medial coronoid processes (FMCP) and lesions on the medial aspect of the humeral condyle (MAHC).

Sample Population

14 cubital joints in 9 dogs.

Procedure

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed with and without intra-articular injection of a solution of 2 mmol of gadolinium-DOTA/L. Arthrographic images obtained after injection of contrast medium were compared with those obtained without contrast medium. Evidence of contrast medium around or in the medial coronoid process and infiltration of contrast medium in subchondral bone lesions was recorded. Twenty-four hours after imaging, arthroscopy was performed, and lesions detected were correlated with results of MRI.

Results

An abnormal coronoid process was diagnosed in 13 of 14 joints. A fragmented process (free) was seen in 7 of 14 joints; nondisplaced mineralized medial (in situ) coronoid processes were evident in 4 joints; and nondisplaced unmineralized medial coronoid processes were evident in 2 joints. Lesions on the MAHC were diagnosed in 4 of 12 joints. In 5 joints, a hyperintense signal resulted from contrast medium that infiltrated between the fragmented process and ulna. In 2 joints, contrast medium did not infiltrate completely around the process and was stopped by an isointense structure (ie, abnormal cartilage). Subchondral bone lesions were enhanced by use of contrast medium.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

Use of arthrography enabled us to identify FMCP easily, but did not provide important additional information about changes on the medial coronoid process, compared with MRI performed without contrast medium. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:190–193)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of medial coronoid process and humeral condyle lesions in dysplastic cubital joints and to compare survey radiography and MRI for evaluation of fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) and lesions of the medial aspect of the humeral condyle (MAHC).

Animals

18 dogs with elbow dysplasia.

Procedure

Radiography of 22 cubital joints was performed. The 22 joints then underwent MRI. The scans were evaluated with regard to the shape and signal of the coronoid process; articular cartilage change, subchondral bone disruption of the MAHC. Surgical findings were used as the standard to calculate accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive- and negative-predictive values for specific diagnosis of FMCP (free fragment) and lesions of the MAHC.

Results

At surgery, 31.8% of the joints had FMCP (free), 36.4% had nondisplaced unmineralized coronoid process, and 27.2% had nondisplaced mineralized coronoid process. Eleven joints had lesions of the MAHC, and wear lesions were observed in 41 % of the joints. On radiography, FMCP (free) was visualized in 9% of the joints and lesions of the MAHC were observed in 23%. MRI had the highest accuracy (95.5%), sensitivity (100%), and negative-predictive value (100%) for detection of FMCP (free), and had accuracy (91 %), sensitivity (87.5%), specificity (92.5%), and positive (87.5%)- and negative (92.5%)- predictive values for detection of nondisplaced unmineralized coronoid process.

Conclusions and Clinical relevance

Compared with radiography, MRI was useful for detection of nondisplaced unmineralized coronoid process; images consistently correlated with surgical findings. The technique is accurate and especially useful when radiographic findings are inconclusive. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1367–1370)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research