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SUMMARY

Streptococcal species isolated from dairy cows with clinical mastitis were obtained from mastitis research workers in Florida, Louisiana, New York, Vermont, Washington, and West Virginia. Seventy-one streptococcal isolates were tested, including 39 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae, 21 strains of S dysgalactiae, and 11 strains of S uberis. The minimal inhibitory concentration of erythromycin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, penicillin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline was determined for each isolate. Differences were not detected among strains with respect to geographic origin. None of the strains was resistant to penicillin. Lincomycin was the next most effective antimicrobial, with only 2 resistant strains of each streptococcal species. There were no differences among the streptococcal species with respect to resistance to either penicillin or lincomycin. Streptococcus uberis was more likely to be resistant to erythromycin than were S agalactiae and S dysgalactiae (P < 0.02). Streptococcus agalactiae and S uberis had similar distributions for resistance to oxytetracycline, tetracycline, spectinomycin, and streptomycin. Strains of S dysgalactiae were more likely to have intermediate resistance to oxytetracycline and streptomycin than were strains of S agalactiae and S uberis, which were highly resistant to oxytetracycline and streptomycin (P < 0.001). Differences were not detected among the streptococcal species with respect to resistance to spectinomycin. Resistance to multiple antimicrobials was observed in all streptococcal species tested. Although S dysgalactiae appeared to have a greater percentage of strains (73%) that were resistant to multiple antimicrobials than did S agalactiae (31%) or S uberis (45%), differences were not statistically significant.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In October 1985, mycoplasmas were isolated from bulk tank milk samples in a large Florida dairy (>1,400 lactating cows). At that time, measures to isolate and control the spread of infection were instituted. In an initial screening test, Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 21 of 153 milking string samples (milk from all quarters of 10 cows/string). Composite quarter milk samples from all quarters of every individual lactating cow in the herd were obtained for culture in November 1985 and December 1985. In October, 88 of 1,535 (5.7%) cows were identified as Mycoplasma-positive. An additional 31 Mycoplasma-infected cows were identified in December. The dairy elected to maintain the infected cows in a separate Mycoplasma-positive subherd, which would be milked at the end of each milking session. Seven additional Mycoplasma-positive cows were identified at initiation of lactation. All newly identified infected cows were transferred to the Mycoplasma-positive subherd. After segregation of Mycoplasma-positive cows, bulk tank milk samples obtained routinely from the main herd remained culture negative throughout the study. From February 1986 to October 1986, quarter milk samples were obtained monthly from cows in the Mycoplasma-positive subherd. Any cow that developed clinical mastitis or substantial decrease in milk production was, at the discretion of the herdsman, culled. Of the 126 cows in the subherd, 22 (17.5%) were culled for mastitis, 35 (27.8%) were culled for low production, and 9 (7.1%) were culled for other reasons. Of the remaining 60 cows, 16 (12.7% of the 126 cows) were Mycoplasma-positive on the basis of results from one or more samples obtained after February 1986. Significant differences were not observed in milk production between Mycoplasma-positive cows remaining in the subherd and uninfected control cows in the main herd. Cows culled for low milk production had significantly (P < 0.001) lower milk production than did cows of other groups. Cows culled for mastitis were more frequently in second lactation (P = 0.04).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides a noninvasive assessment of hepatobiliary structure and function, and has been used extensively in people. Hepatocellular measurements determined in the cats of this study include cardiac washout (≤ 2 minutes) and time of maximal hepatic activity (≤ 5 minutes) and hepatic washout (≤ 30 minutes). The gallbladder response to synthetic cholecystokinin was determined to be ≤ 3 minutes. Additional measurements also were identified. Potential use of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in feline medicine is discussed.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Pyelonephritis was experimentally induced in 10 clinically normal dogs by nephropyelocentesis and introduction of Proteus mirabilis into the randomly chosen right or left renal pelvis. Dogs were examined by nephrosonography and excretory urography before and 2 weeks after infection.

The major nephrosonographic findings of pyelonephritis were renal pelvic dilatation, usually with proximal ureteral dilatation, and a hyperechoic mucosal margin line within the renal pelvis, proximal portion of the ureter, or both. In addition, at least one or more of the following were observed: generalized hyperechoic renal cortex, focal hyperechoic areas within the medulla, and focal hyperechoic or hypoechoic cortical lesions.

Interpretation of excretory urograms resulted in 3 false-negative and 1 false-positive conclusions, compared with the histologic findings. Interpretation of nephrosonograms resulted in 2 false-negative and no false-positive conclusions. Of the kidneys with histologic evidence of pyelonephritis, 73% were detected by excretory urography, whereas 82% were detected by nephrosonography.

Nephrosonography appeared to be useful for detection of mild to moderate cases of acute pyelonephritis that may be be interpreted as such by excretory urography.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate relations between hoof and performance data from bulls fed in a 112-day standardized postweaning feedlot performance test.

Animals and Design

Breeds included were Angus (n = 20), Brangus (n = 19), Hereford (n = 31), and Simmental (n = 53). Hoof measurements, scores, and a 0.5g hoof tissue sample were obtained from the right forefoot of bulls on days 1 and 112 of 4 tests conducted in 3 locations in Arkansas. Data were analyzed, using least squares ANOVA. The model used included an overall mean, breed, farm of origin within breed, initial age, and initial weight within breed and residual. Residual and canonical correlations of the traits studied were calculated.

Results

Residual correlations were found between some hoof minerals. Canonical correlations between performance traits and hoof minerals, between hoof characteristics and hoof minerals, and between hoof characteristics and performance traits were 0.62 and 0.45 (P < 0.05), 0.54 and 0.40 (P < 0.05), and 0.56 (P < 0.01) and 0.26 (P > 0.05), respectively.

Conclusions

These data suggest that a relation exists between performance traits and hoof mineral composition and hoof characteristics and mineral composition. The visual scoring system for these data did not genetically separate bulls on the basis of claw quality.

Clinical Implications

By selecting bulls with high claw quality, cattle producers are decreasing the chances of premature culling because of hoof laminitis. Therefore, by obtaining hoof measurements and mineral composition in a feedlot performance test, producers should have the tools to select bulls for increased lifetime performance.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:291-295)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate rabies virus (RABV) characterization data obtained from animal specimens submitted to the US public health rabies surveillance system and propose a standardized approach to sample selection for RABV characterization that could enhance early detection of important rabies epizootic events in the United States.

SAMPLE

United States public health rabies surveillance system data collected from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2015.

PROCEDURES

Data were reviewed to identify RABV-positive specimens for which virus characterization would likely provide information regarding any of 4 overarching events (discovery of novel variants, translocation of RABV variants, host-shift events, and any unusual rabies-related event) that could substantially alter animal rabies epizootiology in the United States. These specimens were designated as specimens of epizootiological importance (SEIs). Estimates of the additional number of specimens that public health laboratories could expect to process each year if all SEIs underwent RABV characterization were calculated.

RESULTS

During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of SEIs was 855 (95% CI, 739 to 971); the mean number of SEIs that underwent virus characterization was 270 (95% CI, 187 to 353). Virus characterization of all SEIs would be expected to increase the public health laboratories’ test load by approximately 585 (95% CI, 543 to 625) specimens/y.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Prioritization of RABV characterization of SEIs may improve early detection of rabies events associated with RABV host shifts, variant translocations, and importation. Characterization of SEIs may help refine wildlife rabies management practices. Each public health laboratory should evaluate testing of SEIs to ensure diagnostic laboratory capacity is not overstretched.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize systemic immune responses in Cytauxzoon felis-infected cats.

Sample—Blood and lung samples obtained from 27 cats.

Procedures—Cats were allocated into 4 groups: cats that died of cytauxzoonosis, acutely ill C felis-infected cats, healthy survivors of C felis infection, and healthy uninfected cats. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 β were measured and serum proteins characterized. Blood smears were stained immunocytochemically and used to assess immunoglobulin deposition. Immunohistochemical expression of CD18 and tumor necrosis factor-α were compared in lung tissues obtained from cats that died and healthy uninfected cats. A real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for CD18 expression was performed on selected blood samples from all groups.

Results—Concentrations of both cytokines were greater and serum albumin concentrations were significantly lower in cats that died of cytauxzoonosis, compared with results for all other groups. Erythrocytes from acutely ill cats and survivors of C felis infection had staining for plasmalemmal IgM, whereas erythrocytes from the other groups did not. Increased staining of C felis-infected monocytes and interstitial neutrophils for CD18 was detected. The real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay confirmed a relative increase in CD18 expression in cats that died of cytauxzoonosis and acutely ill cats, compared with expression in other groups. Immunostaining for TNF-α in lung samples confirmed a local proinflammatory response.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated immunopathologic responses were greater in cats that died of C felis infection than in cats that survived C felis infection.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize in vitro coagulation status in a cohort of dogs with extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (EHBO) and to evaluate these patients for hypercoagulability by means of thromboelastography.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Animals—10 dogs with EHBO and 19 healthy control dogs.

Procedures—Partial or complete EHBO was confirmed via exploratory celiotomy. Venous blood samples were collected for evaluation of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT); fibrinogen and D-dimer concentrations; protein C and antithrombin activities; and factor VII, VIII, and XI coagulant activities in plasma as well as thromboelastography in whole blood. Thromboelastography variables were measured from the thromboelastography tracing, and a coagulation index was calculated. Thromboelastography results were compared with those of healthy control dogs previously evaluated by the same laboratory.

Results—Hypercoagulability was diagnosed in all dogs with EHBO on the basis of a high coagulation index. Thromboelastography variables, including maximal amplitude, α-angle, and coagulation index, were significantly higher, and K (clot formation time) and R (reaction time) were significantly lower in these dogs than in control dogs. All dogs with EHBO had PT and APTT within respective reference ranges. Plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen concentrations were above reference ranges in 8 and 7 dogs, respectively, and protein C and antithrombin activities were below reference ranges in 3 and 1 dogs, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In vitro hypercoagulability was commonly detected in dogs with naturally occurring EHBO. The traditional view of EHBO as a disease that causes hypocoagulability may need to be reconsidered.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association